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Instituto Politécnico de Bragança (2014)

Caracterização morfológica e genética de cultivares de oliveiras centenárias e tradicionais para a obtenção de produtos diferenciados

Fernandes, Gisela Mariana Magalhães Ribeiro

Titre : Caracterização morfológica e genética de cultivares de oliveiras centenárias e tradicionais para a obtenção de produtos diferenciados

Auteur : Fernandes, Gisela Mariana Magalhães Ribeiro

Université de soutenance : Instituto Politécnico de Bragança

Grade : Mestrado em Qualidade e Segurança Alimentar 2014

Résumé
Centenary olive trees are a typical element on Trás-os-Montes landscape, being the extraction of differentiated olive oils from these trees a potential niche to explore, with economic, social and environmental benefits. This strategy will be only feasible after the genetic characterization of the centenary olive trees of this region. This study aimed to characterize both morphologically and genetically, through microsatellite analysis, the centenary olive trees in the Trás-os-Montes region. In this study were also included traditional cultivars of this region in order to elucidate possible phylogenetic relationships between these and centenary olive trees. The results from the morphological analysis of the fruit, endocarp and leaf from the 15 traditional and 17 centenary olive trees did not allow a complete differentiation of the two populations. The most distinguishable morphological trait in traditional cultivars were related to leaf and shape of fruit, while in the centenary olive trees were most related with the weight and diameter of both the fruit and endocarp. The traits related with the endocarp were the characters that allowed a better differentiation of the two olive tree populations. The 12 loci used in the genetic analysis allowed the detection of 74 alleles in the 32 olive trees and showed a great diversity. The centenary olive trees population showed a higher genetic diversity and number of private alleles when compared to the traditional olive trees population. In both populations was observed an excess of heterozygotes. Despite the low FST value observed (0,030), the structure analysis allowed the differentiation of the two olive trees populations and indicates that some of the traditional olive tree cultivars may be originated from the centenary olive trees. Among the studied loci, UDO-011 and DCA18, allowed the greatest differentiation of the two populations and may be useful in the certification of centenary olive trees. The Mantel test showed a positive and highly significant correlation between morphological traits, especially those related to the fruit, and molecular analysis. Taking into account the results, it is suggested the conservation of the centenary olive tree population due to their higher genetic diversity.

Mots clés  : Olea europaea L. Microssatélites Diferenciação Estrutura populacional Folha Fruto

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