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Erasmus Universiteit (2014)

Determinants of Food Security in Rural Farm Households in Ethiopia

Astemir, Hiwot Yirgu

Titre : Determinants of Food Security in Rural Farm Households in Ethiopia

Auteur : Astemir, Hiwot Yirgu

Université de soutenance : Erasmus Universiteit

Grade : Masters of Arts in Development Studies 2014

Literatures on determinants of food security in rural farm households in Ethiopia are region specific based on cross sectional data. Studies that examine these determinants covering at least two regions remain scarce. Using panel data from ERHS, collected from four different regions, and controlling for woreda (district) heterogeneity the current study analyzes the determinants of food security in rural farm households in Ethiopia. Nutritional status or sufficiency of calories intake is also analyzed as a sub component. Conditional logit and fixed effect models are used to refer to the significant determinant variable as these models basically capture the panel nature of the data. Thus, based on the results of the conditional logit model, among the priority variables fitted in to it, rainfall shock and household size negatively and significantly determine food security. While farmland size, land quality and credit access positively and significantly determine food security at varying levels of significance. In the fixed effects model these same sets of variables significantly determine nutritional status in the same sign as they determined food security with only differences in magnitude and significance of the coefficient estimates. Additionally, off farm income, fertilizer use and oxen ownership are priority variables that are found to be significant in this model. The results of the ordered probit model also reinforce the findings in the two models with only differences in magnitude and significance. Examination of food security status indicated that majority of the farm households are food insecure. In fact there is some improvement over time, even if that is not that much significant. Analysis of regional mean values for food secured households suggested that, majority of the households in Tigray region experienced rain fall shock and occupied infertile land than other regions else. Hence, even the food secured farm households in Tigray region seemed only marginally secured. For a better endurance to the adverse consequences of entitlement failure to the identified determinant factors, sound policy interventions must take in place. Policies on the areas of irrigation, climatic adaption strategies, land improvement, relocation and resettlement and other related interventions are “externalities” to the farm households. However, as farm households are decision makers who want to maximize their wellbeing, interventions should consider the net benefit to them. Besides, policies should start from the more disadvantaged area

Mots clés : Food security, determinants, households, per capita calorie intake, sufficiency of calorie intake


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