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University of Tsukuba (2016)

Comprehensive Research on Issues Related to Economy, Energy and the Environment in Kazakhstan

Akhmetov Almaz

Titre : Comprehensive Research on Issues Related to Economy, Energy and the Environment in Kazakhstan

Auteur : Akhmetov Almaz

Université de soutenance : University of Tsukuba

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering 2016

This work is designed to evaluate the causes of policy incompatibility by application of a multi-level system approach research framework. The main objective of the study is to understand the causes of contradictions between national plans on expansion of carbon intense, commodity export-dependent economy and Kazakhstan’s green growth strategy. It is important to fully understand the environmental, energy and economic risks in Kazakhstan, as well as contradictions between energy, environmental and economic development strategies of the country. The structure of research is presented in Table 1.1. The study starts with analysis of interactions of energy, economy and resulting environmental impact in Central Asian republics. Moreover, the regional energy security related to external supply and demand is analyzed. At the country level, economy, energy and the environment nexus in Kazakhstan is assessed. The relationships between CO2 emissions, energy, and real GDP are modeled between 1990 and 2012. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the Dutch disease in the period 1993-2013 are tested. Sector level study explains the contribution of different industries to CO2 emissions over independence period. The analysis explores the factors affecting emissions of the industry sector. It also helps to define the industry with highest environmental impact. Study on power industry is carried out at the industry level. The structure of the industry as well as its environmental impact is analyzed using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Moreover, the presence of the relationship between coal production and respiratory health is tested. Resource potential and environmental improving effect of wind power technologies in Kazakhstan are assessed. The cost of wind power production is also estimated. Additionally, candidate sites of wind power systems are assessed by the multi-criteria approach. Kazakh Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is a focus of the policy level research. Principles and approaches of Green Growth Strategy and ETS strategy are described. Furthermore, the impact of ETS on industrial energy intensities is analyzed. Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) technique is used to estimate required energy intensity improvement in order to meet ETS emission targets. The chapters are organized as follows : Chapter 2 gives an overview of energy profiles of Central Asian republic. Country security on external energy supply and export demand is assessed ; in Chapter 3, the aspects and the problems of energy sector, environment and economy are analyzed. In this chapter energy-economy-environment nexus is modeled. Additionally, the mechanisms the Dutch disease are investigated ; driving factors of CO2 emissions from industrial activities are analyzed in Chapter 4 ; Chapter 5 describes the power system of Kazakhstan and life cycle assessment is performed in order to identify regional environmental impacts of heat and electricity production ; Chapter 6 presents the potential assessment of wind power and its environmental improving effect from industrial scale development ; in Chapter 7, the Green Growth is described and the effect of Kazakh Emissions Trading Scheme is analyzed ; Chapter 8 sums up the results of the study and provides policy recommendations.


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