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Tottori University (2012)

A comparative study of improved and traditional irrigation system in the Gilgit district of northern areas of Pakistan : from the farm management perspectives

Arif Alam

Titre : A comparative study of improved and traditional irrigation system in the Gilgit district of northern areas of Pakistan : from the farm management perspectives

Auteur  : Arif Alam

Université de soutenance : Tottori University

Grade : DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 2012

Présentation
Pakistan is one of the world’s most arid countries with an annual average rainfall of under 240mm. In the northern parts of the country, Himalaya, Karakorum and Hindukush together make the largest mountain chain on the earth. The Northern Areas (NAs) of Pakistan recently known as (Gilgit-Baltistan) bordering with China, Afghanistan and India. As a result of the regions’ politically sensitive location, the area has been accorded special territorial status and is administered directly by the Federal Government of Pakistan. It is a known fact that most people of the region are poor and depends on agriculture, growing traditional crops and water is supplied through irrigation channels. However, after completion of Karakorum Highway in 1986s, isolation came to the end with rapid social and ecological transformation, i.e. potato and vegetables turned into cash crops because of easy access to the market while on the other hand, demand for water increased due to growing population and cropping pattern.

NAs are considered as water stressed region in the country. It is mainly due to low rainfall (annually 150mm to 240mm) and river flows used for irrigation are derived from glacial snowmelt. Vast amounts of water are lost due to deteriorating watercourses, uneven fields and poorly designed irrigation channels in the region. Therefore, farmers in the region are facing severe water scarcity for agricultural activities. To overcome these problems, National Program for Improvement of the Watercourses (NPIW) was setup in Gilgit-Baltistan during 2003/2004 with the aim of improving irrigation infrastructure by converting irrigation system from traditional to lined/improved (channels made by cement concrete and stone). A total of 600 watercourses were constructed in 2009/2010 and lining of around 1,200 are underway. Given these developments in the irrigation sector, the broad objective of this study is to determine the benefits of the improved irrigation system to the farmers’ economy. This is achieved by comparing an improved irrigation system (IIS) with a traditional irrigation system (TIS) in terms of overall management of irrigation system, land use, productivity, profitability and technical efficiency of crop production.

The study is based on primary data collected from two villages (Sultanabad and Parri) in Gilgit District of NAs Pakistan by using a comprehensive questionnaire. The secondary data was obtained from the local, national and international sources. Using multiple regressions a comparative economic analysis encompassing land use, productivity, cost of production and profitability were examined. To test empirically the perception, satisfaction and participation in irrigation management Yeh’s Index of Satisfaction (YIS) was used. Moreover, stochastic frontier production function was employed to ascertain the impact of irrigation on crop production. Technical inefficiency model was estimated to determine the level of technical efficiency and its determinants

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