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Universität für Bodenkultur Wien (2006)

Decision supporting tools for waste management in developing countries

Gamarra Cabrera, Paola Marcela

Titre : Decision supporting tools for waste management in developing countries

Auteur : Gamarra Cabrera, Paola Marcela

Akad. Grad : Dr. nat. techn. Wien, Univ. für Bodenkultur, Diss., 2006

Université de soutenance : Universität für Bodenkultur Wien | Department für Wasser, Atmosphäre und Umwelt | Institut für Wasservorsorge, Gewässerökologie und Abfallwirtschaft

Résumé
Latin American countries, due to their socio-economic problems, have a poor waste management system as opposed to those in developed countries. These problems are widely shared amongst the countries in the region. Waste management systems in Latin America are primarily characterized by low waste collection rates, low treatment technology, scarcity of adequate disposal sites and recycling activities. The latter mainly developed by a growing informal sector. An important need to be solved in less developed countries (LDC) is the design and combination of appropriate treatment technologies as well as an effective collection. These together with an efficient waste disposal are very important. Urgent tasks need to be taken into consideration. Tools used by developed countries have proven to render very satisfactory results. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was the tool of choice, among a wide variety of decision supporting tools, in order to assess different waste management scenarios. The LCA was used in a determinate area of Lima - Peru. This study attempts to evaluate the effects of current practices such is the disposal in open dumps. At the same time evaluates new option treatments (mechanical, biological pretreatment, co-incineration, composting, etc) that could be applicable in a near future. The LCA allows a compilation of inputs and outputs. This compilation is done for each selected process and treatment in Peru. Processes, which currently do not belong to the Peruvian reality, were quantified by taken values and facts from similar countries. The results generated by the LCA show interesting approaches, especially those related to the obstacles to be faced such are the unavailability and poor quality of data and the analysis of open dumps. This information can only be obtained for specific cases rather than for an overall. Also, quantifying the amount of leachate can present difficulties for arid areas like Lima. Generally, the LCA is a useful tool for a holistic approach of the studied system. It facilitates a good understanding of the interaction between processes and elements. Although the study makes use of unreliable data and values from other countries with different technological levels of development, it can be used to obtain a holistic view. In this way we can learn about waste management systems in both LDC and developed countries. This holistic views teaches us how the system works, including mechanisms with different technologies and treatments, energy distribution, knowledge of hazardous emissions, industrial processes of waste materials reception, etc. The observations drawn from the comparison between both realities (LDC and developed countries) will help us obtain a greater knowledge on the subject and therefore will simplify the decision-making process in the future

Mots clé : Lateinamerikanische Länder / Weniger entwickelte Länder / Entscheidungshilfe / Ökobilanz / Abfallwirtschaft-Systeme — Latin American countries / less developed countries / decision supporting tools / life cycle assessment / waste management systems

Présentation : Österreichische Dissertationsdatenbank

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