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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2006 → Ökologische und sozioökonomische Entwicklungen am Südrand des Dsungarischen Beckens, AR Xinjiang : vor dem Hintergrund des chinesischen Transformationsprozesses in den 90er Jahren des 20.

Technischen Universität Berlin (2006)

Ökologische und sozioökonomische Entwicklungen am Südrand des Dsungarischen Beckens, AR Xinjiang : vor dem Hintergrund des chinesischen Transformationsprozesses in den 90er Jahren des 20.

Hamann, Bettina

Titre : Ökologische und sozioökonomische Entwicklungen am Südrand des Dsungarischen Beckens, AR Xinjiang : vor dem Hintergrund des chinesischen Transformationsprozesses in den 90er Jahren des 20.

Auteur : Hamann, Bettina

Université de soutenance : Technischen Universität Berlin

Grade : Doktorin des Ingenieurwissenschazften 2006

Résumé _This thesis highlights population and landscape changes that occured at the end of the 20th century in the context of the Chinese transformation process in a relatively remote area of China. The research area lies at the Southern fringe of the Dsungarian Basin in the North of the Autonomous Region of Xinjiang. This area includes the agricultural areas of two Chinese statefarms and parts of the rangeland that surrounds the statefarms and that is used by several Kazakh pastoralist families for the keeping of livestock. The statefarms were characterised both by imigration and by emigration. This process was economically motivated and can be seen in the context of generally increasing social differences in China. Social and economic differences were, however, also growing within the research area : This was leading to different tendencies in the population development of the separate ‘villages’ of the statefarms. It appeared that ecologically critical areas were characterised increasingly by economic disadvantages. An increase of the agricultural area was not possible due to the shortage of water for irrigation, desertification and due to salinisation of water and of soil. The growing use of ground water for irrigation purposes has to be seen very critically (Chapter 5). Several Kazakh families were using those pastures bordering the statefarms for the keeping of their livestock. In the contrary to the Chinese population, for the Kazakhs living in the research area, migration only played a minor role. Imigration was difficult due to very restricted working opportunities apart from working in pastoralism. Emigration to urban areas was also difficult because the Kazakhs face major problems looking for work on the Chinese job market. Similar to the economic situation in the statefarms, growing social and economic differences were also observed amongst the Kazakh community. In this context, the number of livestock (mainly sheep and goats) was growing. This affected – together with a general lack of legal security in respect to the use of the pastures and with the constant high water withdrawal from the side of the statefarms – the state of the natural vegetation negatively (Chapter 6). In the last chapter ideas for a successful environmental monitoring program in arid areas of China are discussed, with the research area serving as an example. In this context, special attention is paid to the importance of socio-economic parameters (Chapter 8).

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