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Bayerischen Julius-Mawimilians-Universität Würzburg (2006)

Fernerkundungsbasierte Modellierung und hydrologische Messungen zur Analyse und Bewertung der landwirtschaftlichen Wassernutzung in der Region Khorezm (Usbekistan)

Conrad, Christopher

Titre : Fernerkundungsbasierte Modellierung und hydrologische Messungen zur Analyse und Bewertung der landwirtschaftlichen Wassernutzung in der Region Khorezm (Usbekistan)

Auteur : Conrad, Christopher

Université de soutenance : Bayerischen Julius-Mawimilians-Universität Würzburg

Grade : Doktor der Naturwissenschaften 2006

Résumé partiel
The recently founded states of Middle Asia face serious economical and ecological problems in irrigated agriculture. Thus, the introduction of the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is one of the major aims of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination (ICWC) of Middle Asia. This study focuses on the irrigation and drainage systems of Khorezm, located in the lower Amu Darya Basin. The scientific gaols were (1) to generate objective and consistent data to measure agricultural land use and water consumption in irrigated areas of the Khorezm region and (2) to analyze the functioning of the irrigation system to assess the use of land and water. Remote sensing in combination with hydrological measurements and irrigation performance indicators were found suitable to achieve these aims. A method was developed to classify agricultural land use for the entire Khorezm region by temporal segmentation of 8-day 250 m MODIS time series. The application of Recursive Partitioning And Regression Tree (RPART) on temporal segments of the time series enabled stable results and portability with 91% overall accuracy and a Kappa coefficient of 0.9. Daily MODIS 1 km Land Surface Temperature (LST) data were used for modeling seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETact) of the summer vegetation period. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was slightly modified to account for the coarse spatial resolution of MODIS data and for semi-operational purposes. MODIS 1 km land products (LST, emissivity, albedo, NDVI, and leaf area index), and meteorological data were combined for modeling ETact. The sensible heat flux was calculated according to the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) variant of SEBAL. Aggregated to MODIS 1 km scale, the land use classification was the determining parameter to select hot and cold anchor points needed to model sensible heat fluxes automatically. The probability to find completely dry or wet conditions within a 1 km grid is very low. Thus, classification results, NDVI, and ASCE-EWRI reference evapotranspiration (ETref) were used to adjust the estimations of the vertical temperature gradient at the best fitting anchor points (similar to METRIC). Furthermore, flow measurements were recorded for 2005 to generate a hydrological data set for balancing. The water balance was achieved by integrating the remotely sensed evapotranspiration. Additionally, widely accepted irrigation performance indicators such as relative evapotranspiration, drainage over inflow ratio, and depleted fraction were calculated on a monthly base to investigate the functioning of the canal network in Khorezm on regional scale. For agricultural use, withdrawals of 5.38 km3 were measured in the vegetation period 2005. The values were on average 37% higher than the official data of the ICWC. Within the system boundaries water amounts of 22,782 m3/ha were available for irrigation. Comparisons between subsystems showed regional disparities of withdrawals ranging from 17,000 m3/ha to 30,000 m3/ha.

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Page publiée le 18 mars 2008, mise à jour le 5 janvier 2019