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Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 1972 → Wildlife, man and competition for land in Kenya : a geographical analysis

Michigan State University (1972)

Wildlife, man and competition for land in Kenya : a geographical analysis

Capone, Donald L

Titre : Wildlife, man and competition for land in Kenya : a geographical analysis

Auteur : Capone, Donald L

Université de soutenance : Michigan State University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1972

In this study the complex question of competition for land occupance in Kenya is approached in three ways : temporally, functionally, and in a case study. In Chapter l the physical, biotic, and human background to the problem of competition for land in Kenya is presented. The uniqueness of Kenya’s wildlife resources is pointed out and habitat requirements are discussed. The potential threat to wildlife from human population growth is introduced and competition for land between men and animals is seen as a serious problem. The last part of the chapter outlines the objectives of the study. In Chapter II the historical factors characterizing the land question in Kenya, as it relates to wildlife, are placed in the theoretical setting of S.B. Jones’ unified theory model. This provides a test for the Jones ’model’ and a systematic conceptualization of the temporal data. The model’s idea-area chain proves very useful in tracing the evolution of wildlife conservation areas in East Africa. Conservation areas are seen to be more than merely administrative units ; they become political areas within the state, generating their own circulation fields, pressures, and modifications of the underlying idea. The resources of conservation areas come to represent one thing to the state, and another to the people living in or near them. Chapter III is a functional analysis of the contemporary wildlife conservation system in Kenya. The system is a complex one in which a variety of agencies and interest groups share in the control of conservation areas. The administration of hunting and the economic benefits derived from the industry are outlined and the allocation of wildlife resources is discussed. Salient problems confronting Kenya’s wildlife conservation areas are investigated, and two categories of problems recognized. Management problems include those involving primarily ecological considerations, and those produced by the impact of increasing numbers of visitors to the wildlife areas. Visitor-impact is a problem of growing magnitude in Kenya and has already led to conflict between economic and conservation goals. It is shown that in the case of lodge sitting, economic considerations outweigh conservation goals. Problems of conflict between human and animal interests include poaching, and land-use conflict. Types of poaching and the impact of each are described. Land use conflict appears the most serious long-term threat to the future of wildlife in Kenya. Movement of agricultural peoples into what has formerly been wildlife land is seen as particularly damaging. Chapter IV presents a case study of such a movement ; the migration of pioneer agriculturalists into the dry bush land of southeastern Kenya. This study demonstrates the complexity of the factors involved in migration patterns. Economic factors are important, but cultural and social forces are also seen to contribute to migration behaviour and influence settlement. A form of social organization, the utui system of residence, is of particular interest, influencing both the manner of migration, and the pattern of settlement. This particular migration also demonstrates the profound impact of pioneer agriculture on regional ecology, and particularly on wildlife abundance and distribution. In the concluding chapter attention is focused on population growth as the basic cause of increasing human impact on wildlife. It is suggested that programs of agricultural development in the traditional areas of settlement will provide a satisfactory solution to human-animal conflict in Kenya. Increased productivity in these densely populated areas promises to reduce the impetus of migration and stem the flow of settlers into wildlife habitats. Conservation organizations are urged to support this effort for the future survival of Kenya’s wildlife depends on the solution of this basic conflict.

Sujets : Land use ; Wildlife conservation ; Habitats ; Land economics ; Migration ; Population ; Ecology ;


Page publiée le 27 janvier 2018