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UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2015)

Access to water supply in urban poor households : the case of slums in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Kidanie, K.A

Titre : Access to water supply in urban poor households : the case of slums in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Auteur : Kidanie, K.A

Etablissement de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2015

Résumé
Access to water is important for life and socio economic development, which is a key to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates. Conversely, water scarcity leads the poor to pay un proportionally high price for water, which encourages the continuity of the poverty cycle (MoWR, 2002). Worldwide around 884 million people do not have access to improved water services. Particularly in developing countries people lack access to drinking water (WHO & UNICEF, 2010). Shortage of water supply and poor water quality are the major concerns in Ethiopia and in Gullele sub-city, a slum area of Addis Ababa. The Ethiopian government has water sector policies that take into account the situation of the poor, such as flat rate tariff policy and social tariff policy. However, there is no specific policy that directly addresses the problems of the poorest members of the community, who live under the poverty line. This means that many households situated in the slum area of Gullele sub-city face many different challenges with regard to accessing water.The objective of this study is therefore to assess the current status of the water supply system in slum areas of Addis Ababa and to research how they are supported by the existing water sector policies. The study area was selected based on information from key informants and the researchers prior exposure to the area. The study included the water sector policies, the households sources of access to water, availability of water, daily water consumption, time taken to fetch water and the cost of water in the selected slum area. The results of a survey of 100 poor households living in a slum area of Gullele sub-city found that 62% of the households do not have a piped connection and that their main water sources are public taps (29%), vendors (12%), kiosks (4%) and the balance (17%) get water from unimproved1water sources. The service that majority of the households receives is highly interrupted and the availability of water is on average 5 days per month with an average duration of 5.2 hours per day. Consequently, 87% of the households relied on alternative water sources (13% received regular water services from their main sources). Vendors and kiosks that are further apart from where they live are the alternative water sources for 30% and 21% of the households respectively ; public taps are the alternative source for 10% of the sampled households, 6% of the households depends on rainwater (during the rainy season) and the rest, 33% of the households, arerelying on unimproved water sources if their primary source fails. For a single return trip, the average distance that the households have to travel to collect water from an alternative water source is 2.1 km, theaverage time spent at water point by waiting in line is 53 minutes and the average travelling time required to collect water is 2 hours. The households’ average daily water consumption is 15.5 litres per capita and those who buy water from water resellers spend 14.6% of their monthly income to this amount of water.Some of the reasons why the poor cannot receive service from the water utility are that they cannot afford the connection fee and that they do not have the required land ownership documents. The study indicatedthat, the government subsidy strategy for the poor, the use of an increasing block tariff system does not benefit the poor. The majority of them are not connected to the utility network. Medium to long-term recommendations of this thesis include the development of policies specifically targeting the poor and increasing the efficiency of the management of the water utility through capacity development partnerships. However, equal distribution of water, efficient management of public taps and maintenance on existing infrastructure as well as investments in expansion of the infrastructure network should be addressed on the short term.

Sujets  : water supply ; urban poverty ; households ; slums ; case studies ; Ethiopia

Présentation

Page publiée le 7 janvier 2017, mise à jour le 16 octobre 2018