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Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (2005)

Inorganic and organic environmental geochemical issues of the Gaza Strip, Palestine

Shomar, Basem

Titre : Inorganic and organic environmental geochemical issues of the Gaza Strip, Palestine

Auteur : Shomar, Basem

Université de soutenance : Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

Grade : Doktorgrade 2005

The multi-faceted nature of the environmental issues in the Gaza Strip, Palestine requires an interdisciplinary, integrated approach to management strategies. The Palestinian Ministry of Environmental Affairs (MEnA) has set research priorities based on an understanding of the complexity of the Gaza environment through many years of study. The top priority has been and will remain the human health risks and hazards due to the deterioration of the water, air, and soil. Environmental deterioration is not a new problem. It is rather an accumulation of natural, political, economic, and social conditions. These conditions add a layer of complexity to ameliorating the environmental problems. Although this research mainly focuses on the scientific side, the researchers recognize that addressing political, economic, and social factors is essential for any proposed solution to the deteriorated environment. While this study focuses on Gaza, some of the research extended to areas beyond Gaza. Environmental problem generally extend beyond small geographic areas and do not respect political boundaries. Thus, it is important to understand the regional environmental situation so as to establish regional cooperative efforts that are based on scientific awareness. This study was conducted in parallel with a research project (Gaza Project) that is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Scientific Research. Through this project, we collected and tested the required samples and consulted with the local experts. This study has combined two branches of science that are rarely combined dissertation projects ; the organic and the inorganic geochemistry. For this reason, knowledge not only in organic and inorganic geochemistry but also in many other relevant subjects was necessary. Examples of these subjects include, but not limited to, water quality, water quality management, soil science and geology, microorganisms and biology, and statistics and its applications. Moreover, it was also important to follow some of available literature, specialized lectures, local and international conferences, and weekly meetings at the institute where this study was conducted. Each chapter in this study reflects a focused scientific approach that essentially allows it to stand by itself as independent study. The chapters contain some repetitions especially in describing sampling methods and the study area (Gaza Strip). These repetitions result because each chapter constitutes an article that has been published or is in the process of being published in a specialized international scientific journal. All these articles are put together to form one complete study. The sequencing of the chapters is not based on chronological order, but on the priorities of the national Palestinian environmental strategy. Hence, water and public health come first followed by wastewater, solid waste, land use, agricultural practices and their impacts. The first chapter focuses on the geochemistry of groundwater while the second studies examples of pollutants and their impacts on the public health. The third and fourth chapters tackle wastewater issues, including reuse potential, and the impact on soil and groundwater. Wadi Gaza, which is a hub for wastewater and solid waste disposal, is the fifth chapter. The sixth chapter looks at geochemical properties of the soil in Gaza, while the final two chapters focus on the effect of agricultural practices on the soil, including pesticide concentrations and transport in soil and groundwater, and trace metals concentrations

Mots clés : Gazastreifen ; Grundwasserverschmutzung ; Aufsatzsammlung


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