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UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2012)

The role of river basin organizations in addressing water management problems in Mongolia : a case study of water pollution management in the Tuul river basin

Borchuluun, S.

Titre : The role of river basin organizations in addressing water management problems in Mongolia : a case study of water pollution management in the Tuul river basin

Auteur : Borchuluun, S.

Etablissement de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2012

Résumé
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has been a widely accepted paradigm that aims at the coordinated management of water resources. Recognizing the need of strong coordination and interlinkages in water management, many countries in transition have adopted the principles of IWRM in river basin management and created new bodies to operationalize IWRM. Mongolia adopted IWRM in 2004 with the intention to address the various water problems in the country, particularly, the pollution problem. However, little is known to what extend and how the newly established River Basin Councils (RBCs) can contribute to address the water problem. To understand the constraints in the present institutional arrangements, in particular the role of the River Basin Council (RBC), a case study was conducted on the role of Tuul RBC in addressing pollution management. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the research. About 60 stakeholders participated in two surveys and 31 officials were interviewed. Moreover, the research included the review of related documents and reports. The research revealed that weak coordination among various Government organizations was the main issue that leads to weak cooperation, diffuse responsibilities and inadequate laws and legislations on pollution management. The underlying causes identified were the limited resources of the Central Government and the lack of designated status of coordinating bodies to compete with various governmental agencies. Most see a coordinator role for Tuul RBC in water pollution management. The main tool to ensure such coordination is to have a river basin management plan. However, the unclear scope and role of the RBC and the lack of resources hinder its functioning. Moreover, it was found that industrial representation (the polluters themselves) was clearly lacking in the current composition of the Tuul RBC. The research concluded that the role of the RBC in addressing pollution as well as water management problems in Mongolia can be to coordinate the various governmental agencies at operational level and to integrate the activities of the horizontal and vertical organizations in the implementation of the plan. Strong coordination can resolve potential conflicts in the basin and the RBC can play a role as conflict resolver in the basin. Therefore, there is an important function for the RBCs in Mongolia to play this coordinating role. Of course, the pollution is not caused by insufficient institutional arrangements. Technical and financial problems are important constraints to effectively address the pollution. Therefore, ways need to be found to resolve these constraints. One example is to introduce innovative and affordable treatment facilities to industries. The case of Mongolia may potentially be similar to situations existing in other transition countries. The integration and coordination at river basin level based on IWRM principles may indeed also be suitable for these countries.

Sujets  : river basins ; integrated water resources management ; pollution management ; case studies ; Mongolia

Présentation

Page publiée le 8 janvier 2017, mise à jour le 12 octobre 2018