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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Pays-Bas → 2008 → Weather, water and malaria mosquito larvae : the impact of meteorological factors on water temperature and larvae of the Afro-tropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles

Wageningen Universiteit (2008)

Weather, water and malaria mosquito larvae : the impact of meteorological factors on water temperature and larvae of the Afro-tropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles

Paaijmans, K.

Titre : Weather, water and malaria mosquito larvae : the impact of meteorological factors on water temperature and larvae of the Afro-tropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles

Auteur : Paaijmans, K.

Université de soutenance : Wageningen Universiteit

Grade : PhD thesis 2008

Résumé partiel
Malaria control using drug treatment and insecticide-impregnated nets or the treatment of mosquito resting sites with long-lasting insecticides are increasingly failing, as drug-resistant parasites emerge and mosquito vectors develop resistance against insecticides. Because malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world, affecting over 350 million and killing over one million people annually, alternative control strategies have been introduced or are under development. Malaria control methods that aim to reduce adult vector populations by targeting their aquatic immature stages are gaining ground. These aquatic stages determine the abundance, dynamics and fitness of mosquito adults and, hence, affect the transmission of malaria. A better fundamental understanding of the biology and ecology of these essential stages could contribute to the implementation of current control methods and to the development of novel strategies. A better understanding of the factors that affect the life-history characteristics of mosquito larvae could furthermore improve current models that assess malaria risk but often do not incorporate the immature stages of the malaria vectors. The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of physical and biological factors on the biology and ecology of immature stages of the malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae, the most broadly distributed and most efficient vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. This thesis shows how meteorological variables can affect the life-history characteristics of larvae of An. arabiensis and An. gambiae and the temperature of their aquatic environment. Meteorological variables and water temperature in differently-sized, semi-natural habitats, which were exposed to the ambient environment, were studied in western Kenya, as well as the growth, development and survival of the immature stages of the malaria vectors in identical habitats. As temperature is an important determinant in the growth, development and survival of malaria mosquito larvae, more accurate measurements are needed of the temperature fluctuations to which these larvae are exposed on a daily basis. Such measurements in clear, semi-natural water bodies are shown in Chapter 2. The diurnal water temperature dynamics in the smallest habitat differed on both a spatial and a temporal scale from that in larger water bodies. Combining these water temperature data with local meteorological data, a model was developed that accurately predicts the daily fluctuations of the water temperature (Chapter 2). Water temperature dynamics were furthermore affected by habitat turbidity : Turbid water bodies had a higher near-surface water temperature during daytime than clear water bodies of identical dimensions (Chapter 3).

Mots clés : malaria / mosquito-borne diseases / anopheles gambiae / meteorological factors / water temperature / effects / animal ecology / larvae / biological development / survival / mortality / anopheles arabiensis / kenya

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Page publiée le 27 mars 2008, mise à jour le 2 juin 2022