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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Pays-Bas → 2002 → On indigenous production, genetic diversity and crop ecology of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman)

Wageningen Universiteit (2002)

On indigenous production, genetic diversity and crop ecology of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman)

Tsegaye, A.

Titre : On indigenous production, genetic diversity and crop ecology of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman)

Auteur : Tsegaye, A.

Université de soutenance : Wageningen Universiteit

Grade : PhD thesis 2002

Résumé partiel
The indigenous enset-farming complex of the south and southwestern highlands of Ethiopia has supported a higher population density than any other farming system. Enset ( Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) has been cultivated as (co-)staple food for about 7-10 million people. Since the last three decades, however, because of population pressure, recurrent drought and diseases there has been degradation of natural resources and, thus, the system failed to sustain the population. In the study, described in this thesis, the indigenous enset production methods, farm-based enset biodiversity and the plant characteristics and environmental factors influencing productivity were analysed to identify yield potentials and constraints in Sidama, Wolaita and Hadiya. The ultimate goal was to develop improved agronomic practices and enhance the use of the existing genetic diversity to reduce the gap between the actual yield and yield potential.

Some indigenous cultivation methods vary among regions : initiation of suckers, frequency of transplanting, leaf pruning and planting patterns. Morphologically diverse enset clones were identified in Sidama (52), Wolaita (55) and Hadiya (59). Among 146 clones, a total of 180 AFLP fragments was scored of which 104 (58%) appeared polymorphic. The AFLP-based dendrogram showed more duplication groups than the farmers’ characterisation method suggesting that farmers overestimate the genetic diversity. The correlation between the two methods was only weak. Yet, the comparison between the AFLP-based and farmers-based characterisation methods showed that some aspects such as absence of clear regional clusters and clustering of clones with various prefixes to a single group corresponded well. Duplications in the clones identified by both methods may be safely removed from a conservation programme. Variation in farmers’ skill in discriminating between clones may suggest that the areas where the people’s culture is closely associated with the crop, should receive high priority for collecting clones or serving as sites for in situ conservation.

Mots clés : ensete ventricosum / ensete / cropping systems / genetic variation / genetic markers / random amplified polymorphic dna / clones / landraces / indigenous knowledge / genetic resources / growth / transplanting / pruning / crop yield / harvesting losses / processing / food production / ethiopia / agroecology

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