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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Chine → 2016 → Evaluation of Nutrients and Water Use Efficiency of Different Maize Wheat Cropping Systems in the North China Plain

Université de l’agriculture de Chine (2016)

Evaluation of Nutrients and Water Use Efficiency of Different Maize Wheat Cropping Systems in the North China Plain

周文利

Titre : Maize Wheat Cropping Systems in the North China Plain

Auteur : 周文利

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2016

Université : Université de l’agriculture de Chine

Résumé
Ensuring food security and sustainable development of agriculture is the fundamental goal of China’s agricultural development. With the improvement of people’s living standard and the slowing population growth, the demand of grain ration tend to stable, the demand for feed grain and industrial grain has increased steadily. More than 70% of maize production in China was used as feed grain. The North China Plain is an important wheat and maize production base in China. Shortage of water resources, low nutrient use efficiency has become one of the main limiting factors which restrict the sustainable agriculture development. Taking Quzhou Country Hebei Province as an example, this thesis studied the crop yields, demands of water and nutrients in winter wheat-summer maize (W-M) cropping system, winter wheat/spring maize/summer maize (W/M/M) and spring maize-summer maize (M-M) cropping systems, and explore the potential of technology optimization. This paper discussed the possible ways of increasing grain yield and high resource use efficiency through the adjustment of cropping system and the reasonable collocation of crops in the North China Plain. The main results are as below :(1) Under the traditional management, the yield of W-M cropping system was higher than the other two cropping systems. The average yield of two years was up to 17.t ha-1. A higher production of maize in W/M/M and M-M cropping systems can be achieved. The highest production of maize can be achieved in M-M cropping system, which was as high as 15.0 t ha-1. The increasing of maize yield was at the expense of decreasing planting area and yields of wheat.(2) Under the traditional management, nutrients use efficiency of different cropping systems was significantly different. The N use efficiency and P use efficiency of W-M cropping system were 49.1 kg kg-1 and 297.4 kg kg-1. That was higher than the other two cropping systems. The surpluses of N and P2O5 of W/M/M cropping system were least. Compared with W-M cropping system the surpluses of N decreased 80 kg ha-1, and the surpluses of P2O5 decreased 17 kg ha-1. The nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorous fertilizer use efficiency increased by 18.6% and 9.0% compared with W-M cropping system.(3) Under the traditional management, the least water consumption and irrigation can be achieved in M-M cropping system. Which consumed about 657 mm water and 224 mm irrigation water. Compared with W-M cropping system water consumption and irrigation decreased 200 mm and 100 mm. M-M cropping system has the highest water use efficiency.(4) Under the optimal management, winter wheat yields increased by 20%. The yield of W-M cropping system and W/M/M cropping system increased significantly. The surpluses of N and P2O5 in W-M cropping system and W/M/M cropping system decreased under the optimal management. The surpluses of W/M/M cropping system were least. Water use efficiency of W-M and W/M/M cropping systems increased significantly by 20.9% and 26.2% under optimal management but water use efficiency of M-M cropping system has no change. The demand of irrigation of these three cropping systems were all decreased. The least irrigation water demand can be achieved in M-M cropping system, which was as low as 177 mm.Under the conditions of the experiment, W-M cropping system has the highest yield in these three planting patterns, which is a more appropriate choice for food security. W/M/M cropping system has a higher fertilizer partial productivity and has the potential to obtain a higher yield. M-M cropping system has less demands for irrigation water, which is a more appropriate choice for the sustainable development of water resource.

Mots clés : North China Plain; nutrient; water; cropping system;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 1er février 2017, mise à jour le 11 septembre 2017