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University of Copenhagen (2002)

A Fulani without cattle is like a woman without jewellery : A study of pastoralists in Ferlo, Senegal

Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

Titre : A Fulani without cattle is like a woman without jewellery : A study of pastoralists in Ferlo, Senegal

En Fulani uden kvæg er som en kvinde uden smykker : Et studie af pastoralister i Ferlo, Senegal

Auteur : Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

Université de soutenance : University of Copenhagen

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2002

This thesis concerns dynamics of contemporary pastoralism in Ferlo, Senegal. Recent research suggests mobility to be one of the most important principles of pastoralism. However, it cannot be understood on its own ; therefore, pastoral mobility is studied in the broader context of livelihood strategies. At the methodological level, the aim is to develop methods for collecting and understanding data on pastoral mobility. The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, a chapter called ‘research setting’, five individual papers, and a concluding chapter. While the papers can be read individually, the introductory chapters, and the conclusion concern the thesis ‘as a whole’. As there has been a change of philosophical stance during the research process, these chapters are important for providing a framework for the thesis and for understanding the choices made. _ First, implications of the ‘new rangeland paradigm’ are discussed with special emphasis on implications for understanding pastoral mobility in Paper A. Pastoral mobility provides flexible utilisation of variable natural resources and can mitigate the effects of unforeseen events such as bush fires. This point has been advocated in the past, mainly by anthropologists, but with the new paradigm a coherent theory exists in which pastoral mobility as a flexible strategy can be understood. The argument is illustrated by an example from Ferlo, which shows how a development project hampered pastoral mobility. Further, it is shown how pastoralists themselves use mobility for balancing variability in natural resources. _ The methodology applied for the rest of the papers is outlined in Paper B. The paper argues for a new conceptualisation of the use of rural areas, namely through the study of the relation between practice and values of individual actors. This conceptualisation emphasises a combination of methods analysing both quantitative and qualitative data with due consideration to the philosophical stance. The benefit of analysing both practice and values is shown in two examples. It is concluded that studies of practice and values of individual actors can contribute to our understanding of the use of rural areas in both developed and developing countries and hence revitalise agricultural geography. _ Paper C has a dual objective ; first to investigate the methodological potential of using GPS ; second to discuss the analytical use of GPS data for understanding mobility. It is shown that the methodological potential for using GPS is related to quantifying mobility and characterising the mobility patterns. The paper concludes that from an analytical point of view, the GPS data can be used in combination with qualitative information to make triangulation. Qualitative information is a valuable help for interpreting GPS data. The GPS data can be used prior to qualitative interviews to make informed questions about mobility and they can be used after qualitative investigations to illustrate points made or show inconsistencies. _ The widespread notion of Sahelian pastoralists as destitute and powerless is challenged in Paper D. It is shown how a diversity of pastoral livelihood strategies exists in Ferlo. Depending on the possibilities and preferences of a household, a certain strategy, or combination of strategies, is chosen and this may change from one year to another. Four ideal types of pastoral livelihood strategies are developed : ‘the traditional pastoralist’, ‘the Tabaski pastoralist’, ‘the commercial pastoralist’, and ‘the nonherding pastoralist’. These illustrate that pastoralists in Ferlo have managed to make the most of market opportunities while maintaining their ‘pastoral way of life’. Issues such as identity, ethnicity, and religion are important for the pastoral way of life and affect the different livelihood strategies. _ Finally paper E provides a more complex understanding of pastoral mobility than the one offered by the new rangeland paradigm. It is argued that mobility should be analysed in the context of livelihood strategies and that attention should be paid to pastoralists’ perceptions of mobility. On the basis of the field studies from Senegal, analytical entry points for discussing mobility in a broader context are outlined. These entry points are used as inspiration for developing the so-called ‘mobility complex’

Mots Clés : pastoral societies, mobility, livelihoods, Senegal

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Page publiée le 11 novembre 2017