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University of Technology Sydney (2016)

Mitigation of pollutants for beneficial use of stormwater

Sounthararajah, Danious Pratheep

Titre : Mitigation of pollutants for beneficial use of stormwater

Auteur : Sounthararajah, Danious Pratheep

Université de soutenance : University of Technology Sydney

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2016

Résumé
This thesis examines the efficiency of water demand management techniques throughout Sydney and incorporates possible treatment measures for the removal of the major pollutants of stormwater and their interactions during their removals. After a thorough literature review on the subject in the second chapter, the third chapter discussed the actual reductions in consumption of town water supply due to the widespread installation of rainwater tanks. More specifically it examined the levels of rainwater tank installation in single residential properties in the Sydney metropolitan area and surrounding areas connected to Sydney Water Corporation (SWC) water supply mains. These residential properties’ water consumption patterns were based on metered potable water usage between 2002 and 2009. The number of properties in the study database totalled 962,697 single residential dwellings. This was compared against the potable water consumption of residential properties that did install a rainwater tank. By 2009 a total of 52,576 households had registered for a rainwater tank rebate with SWC which represented 5.5% of Sydney’s total households. The water usage consumption before and after the installation of the rainwater tank was analysed to quantify the extent to which rainwater tanks reduced mains water consumption. This study showed that the average annual water consumption per household in Sydney’s metropolitan area declined from 282 kL/annum (2002) to 200 kL/annum by 2009. The average water consumption fell by 24% over the study period. In many local government authorities (LGAs) in Sydney this reduction was over 28% and up to 33.5%. It may be attributed to effective demand managing techniques such as the Sydney-wide water restrictions, the introduction of water efficient fixtures like taps, dual flush toilets, and efficient shower heads, etc. The average percentage of water savings by installing rainwater tanks across all 44 LGAs was a further 9%. In some Sydney localities this reduction was up to 15%. On average, a household was able to save around 24 kL of water annually by installing a rainwater tank even without considering other factors that affect water usage. The results were compared against socio-demographic factors using variables such as household size, educational qualifications, taxable income, rented properties, and non-English-speaking background, etc. Stormwater pollutants have the capacity to damage aquatic environments if they are discharged untreated. Heavy metals constitute some of the most dangerous pollutants of water as they are toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. These metals are considered to be of major public health concern and therefore need to be removed

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