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Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (2016)

Calidad del material erosionado por el viento en suelos de Argentina

Aimar, Silvia Beatriz

Titre : Calidad del material erosionado por el viento en suelos de Argentina

Auteur : Aimar, Silvia Beatriz

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

Grade : Doctor en Ciencias Agropecuarias 2016

Résumé
Wind erosion is a major degradation of soils of arid and semi-arid of the world, whose magnitudes, and in particular its quality, there is little information. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the quantity and quality of materials eroded by wind in semiarid environments of Argentina, in soils developed on different parent materials. Wind erosion was measured in seven soils developed on material : a) loess (Ls) ; b) aeolian sands (Ar) and c) Tertiary sediments (Tc). They were measured between 5 and 138 storms, collecting the material eroded with BSNE collectors located at 13.5, 50 and 150 cm. It was found that Ar and Ls soils had higher erosions (maximum values of between 25 and 27 Mg.ha -1 .year -1 ) than Tc. Although Tc soils are found in regions of increased climate erosivity (Patagonia and Altiplano) were eroded less due to natural vegetation coverage and lower susceptibility to erosion of soils. The proportion of material mobilized near the soil surface, in relation to mobilized higher, was higher in Ar and Ls soils that in the Tc soils. The eroded material in Ls and Ar was enriched in silt and very fine sand sized particles and too in fine sand in Tc. Emission to the atmosphere of fine particle (PM 10 ), performed mostly from the particle transported more height was, however, higher in Ls due to the greater total mass of eroded material and to its greater ability to emit PM 10 . The concentration of most of the elements discussed eroded material was higher than the original soil in all sites and was increased to height, in most erosive events, the concentration. The absolute losses of all elements were higher in Ls, intermediate Ar and lower in Tc. It was concluded that, Ls soils, despite producing eroded material with lower concentrations of elements that Tc, they have potentially major trends lose highest absolute amount, due to their higher rates of erosion. This involves much more negative effects on the quality of soils eroded as on the ecosystem, particularly through the increased emission to air PM 10 soils.

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Page publiée le 9 octobre 2017