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Universidade Federal do Ceara (2014)

CRESCIMENTO E TROCAS GASOSAS DE SEIS ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS SOB DOIS REGIMES HÍDRICOS NO PERÍMETRO IRRIGADO BAIXO ACARAÚ - CE

Holanda Campelo David de

Titre : CRESCIMENTO E TROCAS GASOSAS DE SEIS ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS SOB DOIS REGIMES HÍDRICOS NO PERÍMETRO IRRIGADO BAIXO ACARAÚ - CE

Auteur : Holanda Campelo David de

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Ceara

Grade : Mestre em Solos e Nutrição de Plantas 2014

Résumé
The forestry activities have grown in recent years by busy growing participation in national exports. The demand for new areas grows every year, and some microregions wood is local importance such as the furniture Marco Polo located in the state of Ceará, but the region is the main hindrance to the planting of tree species characteristics of low water availability that emerges as one of the main issues discussed in relation to the impacts of climate change, especially in arid and semiarid regions where the temperature increase being associated with events of strong reduction of the rainfall and increased evaporation. In order to evaluate the effect of water stress on the development of woody plants, an experiment was conducted with six forest species Astronium fraxinifolium, Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Tabebuia. serratifolia ( Vahl. ) Nich., Tabebuia impetiginosa, Simarouba amara Aubl. and Swietenia macrophylla King. in irrigated and rainfed conditions. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Acaraú, Ceará, Brazil (03 ° 27 ’ 06’’ S 40 ° 08 ’ 48’’ W. 20m). Variable soil moisture, gas exchange, water use efficiency, leaf temperature, photosynthetic efficiency in the use of nitrogen and phosphorus, SPAD index, chlorophyll fluorescence, specific leaf area, leaf degree of juiciness, and plant height were evaluated stem diameter and exchange absolute and relative growth. Water deficit caused by seasonal rains induces reductions in the rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Plants on condition of water restriction and momentary increase the intrinsic efficiency of water use in the dry season. In the dry season plants irrigated better control the temperature of the sheet holding lower than that of air. The internal/external ratio of CO2 was negatively affected in mogno, guanandi and ipê-amarelo in the driest season. The photosynthetic efficiency of use of nitrogen and phosphorus is reduced by water deficit. The low availability of water in the soil reduces the quantum efficiency of photosystem II in mogno and guanandi. The SPAD index is reduced to the driest period in mogno, guanandi and ipê-amarelo. The species ipê-amarelo, ipê-rosa and marupá irrigated to 1 year, maintained a standard height and diameter of the upper stem to plants irrigated permanently within 24 months. Water stress causes declines in absolute and relative rates of growth in height and diameter in all six species. Growth rates follow the seasonal variation of precipitation in non-irrigated plants.

Mots Clés : Water stress. Woody plants. Soil water Estresse hídrico. Plantas arbóreas. Água no solo.

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Page publiée le 18 septembre 2017