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Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB) 2015

Cactáceas do semiárido paraibano : Padrões de estrutura e diversidade

Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio Monteiro

Titre : Cactáceas do semiárido paraibano : Padrões de estrutura e diversidade

Auteur : Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio Monteiro

Université de soutenance : Universidade Estadual da Paraíba(UEPB)

Grade : Mestre em Ecologia e Conservaçao 2015

The study of how species behave in relation to environmental gradients is an established tool in the ecology, being investigated since the pioneering studies in this field. Cactaceae is established as an important constituent family of plant communities of the Brazilian semiarid, and the change in the distribution of many genres and modes of life of this family coincides with the transition between wet and dry environments. In this context, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the structure and diversity of cactaceas communities will be differentiated in relation to different areas of the semiarid of Paraiba, because the genera and species of this family present distinct environmental preferences. To carry out the study were selected four areas (A1, A2, A3 and A4) with pluviometric precipitations decreasing (650, 550, 450 and 350 mm respectively) in the semiarid of Paraiba. We assessed a total of 3,660 individuals of Cactaceae, distributed in six species : Cereus jamacaru DC., Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelb, Opuntia inamoena K. Schum, Pilosocereus gounellei (F. A. C. Weber) Byles & G. D. Rowley, Pilosocereus pachycladus F. Ritter and Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy. A1 presented 196 individuals divided into three species (C. jamacaru, O. inamoena and P. pachycladus) ; A2 was represented by 642 individuals, A3 presented 1,447 individuals and A4 1,375 individuals divided among the six species mentioned. The cactaceas species demonstrated patterns of Importance Value Index (IVI) and Relative Volume (VR) between the different areas. A1 presented the highest individuals (mean height = 4.96 m) and with bigger DAS (mean DAS = 13,34 cm), and having the largest volume of cactaceas (21.42 m 3 ) ; A2 showed more diversity (H ’= 1.39) and equability (J’ = 0.83) ; A3 had the lowest values of DAS (mean DAS = 4.33 cm), height (mean height= 0.85 m), diversity (H’= 0.58), equability (J’= 0.39) and volume of cactaceas (4.92 m ) ; and A4 presented, in most cases, intermediate values between A2 and A3. The greatest richness and abundance of species were related to the locations with low rainfall and more clayey soils had greater diversity of cactaceas. The nMDS (non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling) produced by the environmental variables separated the samples into four groups and the cluster analysis showed differentiated configurations of these attributes within their own areas. The groups differed significantly according to the permutation of Monte Carlo test that were between the Areas 1 and 2 ; 1 and 4 ; 2 and 4 ; and 3 and 4. Of these environmental variables, the predictive model given by BIO-ENV (Biotic-Environmental) suggested that the percentage of clay in the soil and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) are those that best explain the variations of cactaceas communities. The CCA diagram (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), produced 3 with the predicted variables by BIO-ENV showed that the cactacea species that occurring in of Paraiba semiarid have different environmental preferences, revealing that the species P. pachycladus and C. jamacaru were positively related to areas with higher indices of EVI and rainfall ; M. zehntneri and P. gounellei adapted better in areas with soils with higher proportion of clay and silt ; O. inamoena, was negatively related with higher proportions of medium sand ; and T. palmadora, showed no patterns related to variables given by the BIOENV. The significant correlations between the axes of the CCA and the attributes of the structure of the species (abundance, height and DAS), were some times moderate (r 0.40 to 0.69) and most of the times stronger (r ≥ 0.70) and the species that presented best linear associations with the variables tested were M. zehntneri, P. gounellei and P. pachycladus

Mots Clés : Caatinga Gradientes ambientais Granulometria do solo Flora paraibana Environmental gradients Soil granulometry


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