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Universidade Federal de Viçosa (2013)

Uso de sensoriamento remoto e reconhecimento pedológico para identificação de ambientes na sub-bacia do rio Pacuí, submédio São Francisco

Carlini, Belquior Scalzer

Titre : Uso de sensoriamento remoto e reconhecimento pedológico para identificação de ambientes na sub-bacia do rio Pacuí, submédio São Francisco

Auteur : Carlini, Belquior Scalzer

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Viçosa

Grade : Mestrado em Fertilidade do solo e nutrição de plantas 2013

Résumé partiel
The need for recognition of the vast territory of the São Francisco valley for defining priority areas for the implementation of recovery actions and environmental preservation motivated the proposition of this work. We attempted to find low-cost methods for performing this task on submedium, which includes drainage shedding for the trough between the municipalities of Bahia Pilão Arcado and Paulo Afonso. The sub-basin of the river Pacuí was taken as a pilot area for this job. Located in northern Bahia, has 1010,1 km2 and is fully inserted in the municipality of Campo Formoso. It is a tributary of the Salitre River, which rises in the Chapada Diamantina north and empties into the São Francisco river in Juazeiro, 20 km upstream of the seat. The sub-basin has just over 10.000 inhabitants and the main town is existing is Lajes dos Negros, which is distant 96 km from the municipal seat. The region has an average annual temperature of 23,7 oC, evapotranspiration from 1000 to 1400 mm, annual rainfall between 475 and 700 mm, according to the influence of relief, characterized as semi-arid climate , the type classification BSh by Koppen-Geiger. The mountains that surround the dividers topographic northern and western reaches maximum elevation of 1275 m. The center, south and east of the basin have gentle slope and elevation of the mouth is 465 m. Was tested using TM / Landsat 5 to find the best combinations of bands for the distinction of classes of use and land use in the lower basin San Francisco through the Maximum Likelihood classifier. We used the natural sensor TM bands except 6, which deals with the thermal infrared. Were produced four bands to participate in the artificial combinations : the first three bands of the principal component analysis (PCA) and vegetation index (NDVI). We analyzed 1023 different combinations. It was noticed that the PCA3 adds no good results due to the low amount of information. The band also has 2 bad performance often, but there are some cases where benefits. As for the other, it is ideal to use all or at best remove some of the visible region. The combination of natural and artificial bands is ideal. NDVI, PCA1, bands 4, 5 and 7 are the best that deliver results. With the selected bands, recognized the evolution of land use in the sub-basin of the river Pacuí through images TM/Lansat-5 current and historical. The result was the existence of more than 28.000 ha of heavily disturbed areas in the sub-basin, with 45% of the valley and 8% of the mountains are covered with vegetation degraded. We also used the NDVIs four TM/Landsat-5 to investigate deforestation and regeneration of vegetation cover in the last two decades. We employed a subtraction method of vegetation indices. The images used were from August 1992, May 2001, October 2001 and June 2011. For the production of NDVIs were made radiometric calibration, generation of surface reflectance and standardization of means and variances. The subtraction images were divided according to the twelve classes defined for use and occupation for the oldest image of the pair comparison. Each sector was analyzed fitting image pixels difference under nine different ranges : high, medium, low and very low deforestation ; remain unchanged, and very low, low, medium and high regeneration.

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Page publiée le 7 août 2017