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Accueil du site → Master → Brésil → Caracterização citogenética e morfoagronômica de acesso de Stylosanthes spp. (Fabaceae – Papilionoideae) coletados no Nordeste brasileiro

Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) 2015

Caracterização citogenética e morfoagronômica de acesso de Stylosanthes spp. (Fabaceae – Papilionoideae) coletados no Nordeste brasileiro

Lira, Irlane Cristine de Souza Andrade

Titre : Caracterização citogenética e morfoagronômica de acesso de Stylosanthes spp. (Fabaceae – Papilionoideae) coletados no Nordeste brasileiro

Auteur : Lira, Irlane Cristine de Souza Andrade

Université de soutenance : Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS)

Grade : Mestrado Acadêmico em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais 2015

Résumé
Searches related to evaluation and selection of native forages can contribute to improvement in feeding cattle in the Brazilian semiarid region, highlighting the Stylosanthes gender as an important source of forage species with great potential. This study aimed to perform morphoagronomic and cytogenetics Stylosanthes accessions, to contribute to studies that promote the inclusion of this legume in animal feed, seeking to characterize and select superior genotypes, and also select important in the characterization of germplasm of the species. To characterize morphoagronomic were evaluated 19 descriptors and of these, four were immediately discarded for not having variability among accessions, with the statistical analysis performed in the remaining 15 descriptors. The data were submitted to univariate and multivariate analyzes. Analysis of variance was performed only in quantitative descriptors NRP, CHP, Lfo, Cfo, ECAA, ECAS and CP, as to the qualitative descriptors CC, AC, PC, HC, CF, AF, PF and FF, descriptive analysis was performed. For cytogenetic characterization were obtained root tips used seed access Stylosantes 17, following the method described by War and Souza (2002). Scott and Knott test was performed for the grouping of averages, the descriptors were significant at (p ≥ 0.01) which allowed the formation of two groups, multivariate analysis was also performed by calculating the Mahalanobis distance using the method original Tocher, there is the formation of two groups. Group 1 consisted of 42 accesses and the group 2 only through access CPAC 4955. We observed the formation of four groups where the dendrogram also be noted that only the access CPAC 4955 did not group with any other access. This access, for long leaves that too, very thick stem and lack of body hair on the sheets. The descriptors evaluated by Singh test is observed that the main contributors to the diversity of genotypes were CP (11,64%) and NRP (10,98%) followed by HC (8,62%) and FF (8, 44%). By cytogenetic analysis were observed hits with 2n = 20 and 2n = 40 chromosomes, allowing differentiation of species S. scabra of S. seabrana with interphase nucleus of semirreticulado type, symmetrical karyotype with chromosome morphology ranging from the metacentric submetacêntrica and size Average chromosomal around 2,5 microns. Differences were observed in the average length of the chromosomes and the total length of the genome. The analysis with double staining CMA3/DAPI enabled visualization of four CMA+ blocks, two CMA + blocks in subterminal region of the short arm of a chromosome pair submetacentric, and two blocks located in the proximal region of another metacentric pair in S. scabra, and still two blocks in the subterminal region of a metacentric pair in S. seabrana access. It was also possible to visualize DAPI and CMA+ bands in access CPAC 1261 and CPAC 5205. The accessions in this study were, in general, plants with semiereto growth habit, leaves with dark green color and hairiness, stem mostly quite branched. The differential staining of chromosomes, together with other cytogenetic markers, assists in characterizing germplasm collections access Stylosanthes spp. It was observed that there is genetic variability among the accessions studied the collection of Stylosanthes Embrapa Semi-Arid.

Mots Clés : Cromossomos Fluorocromos Diversidade genética Melhoramento de forrageiras. Fluorochromes Genetic diversity Forage enhancement

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