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Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) 2012

Efeitos da implantação de cisternas para armazenamento de água de chuva na saúde infantil : estudo quase experimental na área rural de dois municípios do semiárido mineiro

Ventura da Silva Carolina

Titre : Efeitos da implantação de cisternas para armazenamento de água de chuva na saúde infantil : estudo quase experimental na área rural de dois municípios do semiárido mineiro

Auteur : Ventura da Silva Carolina

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)

Grade : Doutorado 2012

Résumé
Despite centuries of use, few studies were developed to evaluate rainwater catchment system effect on humans health. Thus, the main objective of this study was to investigate its implementation on populations health that lived in rural areas located in two counties in Valedo Jequitinhonha, MG, represented by children under the age of 60 months. The study was developed using a quasi-experimental design, and a cross-sectional design was used to evaluate the health indicators. Children were classified and compared in two groups : 1) cistern group, composed by 332 children that lived in homes with rainwater catchment systems, or that used it from other houses, and 2) other sources group, with 332 children using water from alternative sources. The health indicators were diarrhea ("72 hours" and "90 days"), fecal-oral parasites and Giardia. The microbiological water quality was evaluated to assist in the results discussion. Issues related to drinking water were also included in the socioeconomic and health questionnaire. The multivariate analysis showed the protective effect of the cistern just for Giardia, with 55% reduction in the occurrence of the parasite in children feces in the cistern group, comparing with the other sources group (OR = 0.48, p = 0.039). The prevalence of diarrhea and fecal-oral parasites was lower among children in the cistern group, however the difference between groups was not statistically significant(diarrhea 72 hours : OR = 0.56, p = 135 ; diarrhea 90 days : OR = 0.34, p = 0.066 ; fecaloral parasites : OR = 0.34, p = 0.139). Regarding the drinking water microbiological quality, only 23% of the samples consumed by the cistern group had no E.coli, while this number was higher for the other sources group (42.5%), though there was no significant difference between groups. Examining issues related to the water sources care, it was observed a deficiency in meeting sanitary practices that contribute to improving the drinking water quality, for example the absence or inadequate treatment of water. Factors such as the mix of other water sources in the cistern and the option to continue consuming water from other sources may have contributed to the water quality result. It was concluded, therefore, that despite the rainwater catchment system present strengths as a source of water supply, investments in other sectors of sanitation, especially in the families health education, must be implemented, reinforcing notions of personal, household and food care, so that there will more accentuated decrease in the prevalence of morbidities related to sanitation.

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