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Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL) 2015

Desempenho térmico de habitações populares em Alagoas : alternativas para adequação climática

Torres, Daniela de Araújo

Titre : Desempenho térmico de habitações populares em Alagoas : alternativas para adequação climática

Thermal performance popular housing in Alagoas : alternatives to climate adequacy

Auteur : Torres, Daniela de Araújo

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL)

Grade : Mestrado em Dinâmicas do Espaço Habitado 2015

Résumé
The thermal performance is an important factor to be studied regarding habitability conditions in the built environment, as it directly affects the individuals life quality. The lowincome population, which can’t afford artificial air conditioning systems depends on project adapted to the weather maintenance costs require with efficient thermal conditioning passive strategies. The popular housing units built under the Minha Casa Minha Vida (PMCMV) federal government programme follow a similar constructive and architectural pattern, despite the diversity of sites in which the buildings are located, resulting in unsuitable thermal environments inside buildings. Thus, new models are proposed adapteding the Model Base, PMCMV standard, using passive strategies, such as natural ventilation, thermal mass and evaporative cooling in order to obtain quantitative results of the thermal performance of a housing unity in different climates of the state of Alagoas, considering the cities : Maceio (east), Palmeira dos Índios (western) and Pão de Açúcar (backlands), ranging from warm and humid to hot and dry climate. Through qualitative studies and using computer simulation method with the Energyplus software. 8.1 it assessed the thermal performance of models, design in accordance with the recommended strategies for each region. It assessed as evaluation criterion the number of degree-hours of discomfort based on a pre-set operative comfort temperature inside of the house rooms. A comparative analysis is then carried out, identifying the best models for each city studied from the point of view of thermal performance. Results showed that the adoption of hybrid strategy yielded a better performance. The adapted model 3E, which includes natural ventilation strategy, thermal mass and evaporative cooling achieved the best results, with a reduction of more than 50% of the total degree-hour discomfort regarding the Base Model, MCMV pattern, in the three cities. The adapted model V_MT (ventilation and thermal mass) had the smallest reduction, less than 15%, in Palmeira dos Índios and Pão de Açúcar, where it was simulated.

Mots Clés : Desempenho térmico Habitação popular Estratégias bioclimáticas Arquitetura Alagoas Thermal performance Low-cost housing Computer simulation Architecture

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Page publiée le 15 août 2017