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Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro (UAQ) 2011

Diseño y evaluación de un sistema integral de labranza para zonas semiáridas

Velázquez Luna, Leandro

Titre : Diseño y evaluación de un sistema integral de labranza para zonas semiáridas

Auteur : Velázquez Luna, Leandro

Université de soutenance : Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro (UAQ)

Grade : Maestría 2011

Population growth has generated an increasing demand for food, which is more difficult to produce in arid lands due to the fact that scarcity of water limits crop development. Water harvesting and conservation in the soil profile for crop production is one of the biggest challenges farmers face in arid lands. Although conservation tillage, and the associated use of crop residues as soil cover for reducing evapotranspiration and erosion, is a production option ; it is necessary to develop new systems for conserving moisture, since farmers in this areas use crop residues to feed their animals. The results of developing and evaluating a new tillage system for semiarid areas, based on the concept of vertical tillage, the precise placement of seed in the soil seedbed, and the conditioning of the soil surface are presented in this work. The integrated system was evaluated in USLE-type plots simulating the mechanical effects of each component. Soil erosion and runoff processes, as well as the water content were evaluated using simulated rainfall. Soil resistance to penetration was reduced from 1750 to 1500 Pa after application of the system, with a more uniform consolidation. Runoff decreased 95% due to the effect of the system itself, and reached a reduction of practically 100% when a common beans crop in the stage of flowering was established. Soil erosion was reduced up to70% due to the sole effect of the system, in comparison with the reference standard plot. Moisture level was kept in the average of 38% as compared to a value of 22% on the standard condition. All these effects were reflected in the 44% yield increment and the presence of more vigorous plants in comparison with the compacted control conditions.

Mots Clés : Labranza de suelos Compactación del suelo Conservación de suelo y agua Soil tillage Soil compaction Soil and water conservation


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