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Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT) 2016

Fate and Behavior of Pharmaceuticals in Groundwater of Arid and Semi-Arid Climates - Examples from the Lower Jordan Valley

Zemann, Moritz Berthold

Titre : Fate and Behavior of Pharmaceuticals in Groundwater of Arid and Semi-Arid Climates - Examples from the Lower Jordan Valley

Auteur : Zemann, Moritz Berthold

Université de soutenance : Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie (KIT)

Grade : DOKTORS DER NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN 2016

Résumé partiel
The presented thesis about the accumulation potential of pharmaceutical traces in groundwater of arid and semi-arid climates evolved from the detection of elevated pharmaceutical concentrations in the groundwater of the Jordan Valley in comparison to the contributing surface water. This result in the principle question whether persistent trace substances, e.g. X-ray contrast media, might enrich in groundwater in the long term under such conditions and essentially whether they ultimately reach ecotoxicologically relevant levels. Field investigations were conducted in two areas : The Lower Jordan Valley and the Wadis Shueib and Kafrein. The extensive agriculture on the floor of the Jordan Valley is irrigated with “blended water”, a mixture of locally pumped groundwater and treated wastewater which is conveyed to the area. This results in a continuous external input of wastewater-borne trace substances. A portion of the irrigation water is therefore used in circulation and subject to evaporation during each irrigation cycle. The hydromorphology of the Lower Jordan Valley comprises low precipitation and high evaporation rates and the Dead Sea as the final sink without an outlet. Groundwater in the area is mainly present in the quaternary sediments. Wadi Shueib and Wadi Kafrein are two steep side wadis along the eastern escarpment of the Lower Jordan Valley. Urban areas are found especially in the upper parts of the wadis. Anthropogenic pollution contaminates almost all groundwater sources due to the inefficient or damaged wastewater infrastructure. Both catchments are characterized by karstic limestone and dolomite formations. Shallow groundwater flows in two interconnected aquifer systems in depths of 50 to 75 m. Within the framework of a five year sampling campaign, the temporal and spatial occurrence of wastewater-borne contaminants like different pharmaceuticals, E.coli, and nitrate were evaluated in the study areas. In addition to the field studies, lab scale experiments on unsaturated columns were conducted in order to investigate the effect of evaporative accumulation of the two pharmaceuticals bezafibrate and carbamazepine. Both substances showed accumulation under microbiologically inhibited conditions. Accumulation rates corresponded to the volume of evaporated water and were similar to conservative species like chloride and bromide. These experiments indicate the accumulation potential of pharmaceuticals with high persistence against biodegradation. Thereby, the general potential for evaporative enrichment of pharmaceuticals could be demonstrated for the first time. This potential should be included in risk assessments in the future. In respect to the Lower Jordan Valley however, the experiments under near to natural conditions did not indicate any health risks arising from the application of treated wastewater in agriculture for the near future.

Mots Clés : Organische anthropogene Spurenstoffe, Hydrogeology, Jordanien, Röntgenkontrastmittel, evaporative Anreicherung, Urban, Karst, Säulenversuche, Amidotrizoesäure, Iopamidol, Carbamazepin, Bezafibrat organic trace substances, hydrogeology, Jordan, X-ray contrast media, evaporative accumulation, urban, karst, column experiments, diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, carbamazepine, bezafibrate

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Page publiée le 7 septembre 2017, mise à jour le 10 mai 2019