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Freie Universität Berlin (2016)

Epidemiology of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens in the Semi-arid and the Arid Agro-ecological Zones in Pakistan.

Rehman, Abdul

Titre : Epidemiology of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens in the Semi-arid and the Arid Agro-ecological Zones in Pakistan.

Epidemiologie von Zecken und durch Zecken übertragene Pathogene in den ariden und semiariden agrarökologischen Zonen Pakistans

Auteur : Rehman, Abdul

Université de soutenance : Freie Universität Berlin

Grade : Doktors der Veterinärmedizin 2016

Résumé partiel
Ticks and tick-borne diseases have a large impact on animal health and the livelihood of livestock owners, particularly in developing countries. Despite the suitability of Pakistan’s climate for ticks, there is a paucity of systematic work investigating these parasites and the diseases, which they transmit in this country. To better understand the distribution of ticks, the whole country was divided into five agro-ecological zones using Global-Aridity dataset and 108 livestock farms from 9 different districts, covering the semi-arid and the arid agro-ecological zones in Punjab province, were included in the study. Ticks were collected from two randomly selected animals of each ruminant species present at the farm (194 buffaloes, 179 cattle, 80 goats and 18 sheep) and stored in 70% ethanol. Morphological identification of the ticks was subsequently performed using standard taxonomic keys and multikey software, a computer-based polychotomous key. The identification was confirmed by sequencing of a partial fragment from the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes from randomly selected specimens of each species which proved that the morphological and molecular data are coherent in the identification of the 4 tick species. The prevalence of ticks between the agro-ecological zones was significantly different (P = 0.037). There was no farm found without ticks. In total, 3,807 (12 larvae, 1,231 nymphs, 1,303 females and 1,261 males) ixodid ticks representing four different species were collected : Hyalomma anatolicum (n = 3,021, 79.3%), Rhipicephalus microplus (n = 715, 18.8%), Hyalomma dromedarii (n = 41, 1.0%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 30, 0.9%). Rh. microplus was the predominant species in the semi-arid zone, whereas Hy. anatolicum was the most abundant tick species in the arid zone. Hy. dromedarii and Rh. turanicus were found only in the arid zone. In all the districts, multiple tick species were found except Multan district, where only Hy. anatolicum was present.

Mots Clés : Ticks ; tick-borne pathogens ; anaplasmoses ; ehrlichioses ; rickettsial diseases ; babesiosis ; theileriosis ; risk factors ; livestock

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