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University of Vic - Central University of Catalonia (UVic-UCC) 2012

Efecto de los usos del suelo en la emisión de dióxido de carbono del suelo a la atmósfera en un agroecosistema semiárido del Valle del Ebro

Mendiara Co, Sarah

Titre : Efecto de los usos del suelo en la emisión de dióxido de carbono del suelo a la atmósfera en un agroecosistema semiárido del Valle del Ebro

Auteur : Mendiara Co, Sarah

Université de soutenance : University of Vic - Central University of Catalonia (UVic-UCC)

Grade : Ingeniería Técnica Agrícola, Especialidad de Industrias Agrarias y Alimentarias 2012

Résumé
Land use changes have contributed significantly to increase the concentration ofgreenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, whose emissions havegrown since 1970 by 80%. These changes cause an alteration of soil inducing an impact onthe global carbon cycle that accelerates the soil organic matter decomposition ratesgenerating CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere.A process recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), andrecognized in the Kyoto Protocol, is the carbon sequestration that implies removal ofatmospheric CO2 by plants and storage as soil organic matter. In order to implant thispractice in a particular ecosystem, studies are necessary to understand the factors thatgovern soil respiration and the impact of different land uses on CO2 emissions. In this study,it was studied 4 different types of land uses representative of semiarid rainfed Aragón : acropping system of barley under no-tillage (NT), an abandoned agricultural plowed field(AC), an abandoned uncultivated field (AU) and a forest area (FR). The objective of thepresent study was to evaluate the respiration rates, the environmental factors thatinfluence these rates and to propose land use changes to mitigate CO2 emissions.Additionally, it is included a section to explore the response of soil respiration to nitrogenfertilization (mineral and organic) in a barley system.In the study of land uses, the obtained results in situ as well as in laboratory have shownthe highest soil respiration in AC and the lowest in NT y FR. Thus, one of the mainconclusions is that the suppression of tillage and the fallow period, and the conversion fromabandoned and marginal soils to forest areas or crops are carbon sequestration practices inthis ecosystem.In the study of nitrogen fertilization, there was no change in soil respiration rates afterapplication of mineral nitrogen. In contrast, soil fertilized with manure showed peaks in CO2emissions during the hours following the addition, mainly due to the high content of labilecarbon of the manure.

Mots Clés : Sol, Ús agrícola del Sòls — Fertilitat Anhídrid carbònic

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