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Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) 2015

Fungos Coprófilos de Pernambuco

Melo, Roger Fagner Ribeiro

Titre : Fungos Coprófilos de Pernambuco

Auteur : Melo, Roger Fagner Ribeiro

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)

Grade : Doutor em Biologia de Fungos. 2015

Résumé
Coprophilous fungi represent a restricted group of saprobes specially adapted to live and feed on herbivore dung, being an important component of many ecosystems. Considering the hypothesis that high species diversity can be accessed, with significant differences in the communities especially bet ween the collection area, this study aimed to access the diversity and ecology of coprophilous fungi from Pernambuco. A total of 270 samples of cattle, goar and horse dung was collected for 20 months in areas that compose an edaphic and climatic gradient going from the coast (Recife - Atlantic Forest complex), more humid, through the Agreste (Caruaru) to the semi-arid Sertão (Serra Talhada), both Caatinga complex. A total of 1304 ocurrences of coprophilous fungi was recorded, with 145 species identified species, of which 115 (79.31%) belongs to Ascomycota, followed by M ucoromycotina (17 ; 11.72%) and finally by species of Basidiomycota (13 ; 8.27%). Saccobolus citrinus is the dominant coprophilous species in Pernam buco, with 107 records (8.23%). Podospora is the richest genus, with 12 identified species. Four new taxa are presented, including three species and one genus. Fifty-one species are new records for Brazil. All identified species weredescribed, with the geographic distribution and habitat records. Pictures and illustrations of specimens and an identification key for the coprophilous fungi from Pernambuco are presented. The Theory of Strategy is suggested for the understanding the structure and dynamics of the studied communities, and the relationship bet ween the relative importance of competition, stress tolerance and disturbance are discussed. The most important factor influencing specific composition of these fungi is the type of substrate, and not the collection area, as thought on the initial hypothesis. A pelletization gradient, lower in cattle dung, intermediate in horse dung and higher in goat dung caused a gradient on the community structure, favoring the presence of conidial states and nonpilobolaceous mucoromycetes at the end of the gradient and typical coprophilous species, competitive, on the begining. Variables associated with the rainfall showed little impact on the communities parameters. It was also performed a review of 116 exsiccates containing coprophilous ascomycetes in the Herbarium URM. Among these, excluding the 42 recent additions reviewed, 24 had its identification confirmed, 24 were redetermined and 26 proved inconsistent for review. As a contribution to the knowledge of the brazilian coprophilous mycobiota, a checklist was provided, containing 291 names of fungal species recorded in dung in Brazil, as well as identification keys.

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