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Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR) 2010

Manejo sostenible del agua y fertilización en árboles adultos de naranjo (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en la zona árida citrícola de B.C.S.

Navejas Jiménez, Jesús

Titre : Manejo sostenible del agua y fertilización en árboles adultos de naranjo (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) en la zona árida citrícola de B.C.S.

Auteur : Navejas Jiménez, Jesús

Etablissement de soutenance : Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR)

Grade : Doctorado en Ciencias en el Uso, Manejo y Preservación de los Recursos Naturales 2010

Résumé
In the Mexican State of Baja California Sur, agriculture has long been a traditional activity in spite of presenting a series of problems. The most important agricultural areas evidence particular problems such as groundwater depression and an evident saline intrusion into the aquifer, generating high costs of extraction and production. The soils are characterized as medium textured, with mean annual precipitation of 200 mm, unevenly distributed throughout the year and temperatures oscillating between 40 ° C and 0 ° C. Therefore most of the crops have serious problems adapting to the prevailing agro-climatic conditions. Because of this the requirements for water and fertilization, are complex interactions of a fallow system can generate concepts based on the timely response However, the generation of the response should be repeated on a broader scale, but at proportion that requires an adjustment on the study variable. Experiments were conducted out since 2006 ; on orange plots, with a study focus on orange evapotranspiration, fertilization and interaction of NPK in the productive stage. Preliminary results were obtained which are related to recommendations arising from nutrient diagnosis ; in relation to sustainable water management, involved in the evapotranspiration process and irrigation supply for the use and management of soil and water in the production of orange, the diagnosis was analyzed on the basis of the impact of resource management on economy and regional agricultural development. The average water demand per cultivated area dedicated to Citrus was determined in 5.2 and 6.8 mm día-1, with direct and indirect methods respectively, with a difference of 30.8% between them. The standard deviations were 0.05 and 0.03, and the net water requirement per ha per day was 25 and 19 m3. It was found that the interaction NPK 8-8-0 g m-2 equivalent to 80-80-0 kg ha-1, with an estimated yield of 4.07 kg m-2 equivalent to 40.7 t ha-1, This is the result of using doses in kg ha-1 in the response function obtained as : Y = 35032 - 56.29N - 0.037N2 + 232P - 1.52P2 - 197.5K + 0.57K2 + 0.25NP + 0.44NK + 0.0003NPK. The water use efficiency was 5.06, and 4.03 g L-1 for intermediate and upper interactions 6- 8-8 and 18-16-16 g m-2.The economic index g m-2 6-8-8 and 6-8-4 NPK g m-2 were 5.19 and 5.43. For BC, in contrast to high 18-16-16 interaction g m-2 was less than 2.98. In the study region, 67% of groundwater extracted annually is used for corn and alfalfa agricultural crops, while a low percentage is dedicated to orange, although the last one shows an average monetary rate of $1.04 Mex pesos / m3 of water, with a land use profitability rate of $2,137 Mex pesos per hectare, which both rates are a consequence of a low yield, estimated in 9.6 t ha-1.

Mots Clés : naranjo ; manejo del agua ; fertilización

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Page publiée le 17 octobre 2017