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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Mexique → Evaluación morfológica, bioquímica y diversidad genética del germoplasma silvestre de Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) y Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) del Noroeste de México

Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR) 2016

Evaluación morfológica, bioquímica y diversidad genética del germoplasma silvestre de Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) y Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) del Noroeste de México

Araiza Lizarde, Nidia

Titre : Evaluación morfológica, bioquímica y diversidad genética del germoplasma silvestre de Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) y Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) del Noroeste de México

Auteur : Araiza Lizarde, Nidia

Etablissement de soutenance : Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR)

Grade : Doctorado en Ciencias en el Uso, Manejo y Preservación de los Recursos Naturales 2016

Résumé
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) are potential sources to obtaining oil for industrial purposes and production of biodiesel (Masayuki, 1976 ; Masayuki and Takeshi, 1980). The objectives of this study were to analyze the morphological characteristics of seeds, oil content, physicochemical parameters of lipid, fatty acids composition and genetic variability of ecotypes of jojoba and jatropha in the Northwest of Mexico. Three ecotypes of jojoba named Indígena la Huerta, Sonoyta, and Todos Santos were evaluated. Sonoyta seeds ecotype has the highest weight, length and thickness (0.82g, 15.98 mm and 9.28 mm). Significant differences in color and seed moisture were observed. The number of seeds per kilogram was higher in the ecotype Indígena la Huerta (1217). The oil content was between 43, 44 and 49% in the 3 ecotypes. Viscosity, density, index of acidity, peroxide, yodine and refraction showed no significant differences. The most abundant fatty acids were the Eicosanoic (52 to 62.43%), oleic (13.80 to 27.36%) and Palmitic (6.43-9.70%). ISSR analysis on the accessions of S. chinensis showed a 54% polymorphic. On the other hand 3 ecotypes of Jatropha curcas Estación Dimas, El Quelite and La Campana were analyzed. No significant differences in weight, length, thickness, humidity and number of seeds per kg. The color of the seeds was 60.80 to 65.64 °Hue. The oil content of the germ of J. curcas was 52 to 56%. Viscosity, density, index of acidity, peroxide, iodine and refraction showed no significant differences in the seeds collected in the three ecotypes in study. The most abundant saturated fatty acids were oleic (44 to 46%), linoleic (42 to 44%) and palmitic (4-6%). SSR analysis of J. curcas accessions showed expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.7524, 0.7092 and 0.7956 in ecotypes of La Campana, Estación Dimas and El Quelite respectively. The wild germplasm of jatropha and jojoba is an alternative in the cosmetics and energy industry and represents a potential for activating the economy in arid and semi-arid regions of México.

Mots Clés : ácidos grasos ; semillas ; ISSR ; lípidos ; jatropha ; jojoba ; SSR

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Page publiée le 15 octobre 2017