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Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR) 2012

Valoración económica de los servicios ambientales del acuífero de La Paz, para el uso sustentable del recurso agua

Avilés Polanco, Gerzaín

Titre : Valoración económica de los servicios ambientales del acuífero de La Paz, para el uso sustentable del recurso agua

Auteur : Avilés Polanco, Gerzaín

Etablissement de soutenance : Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR)

Grade : Doctorado en Ciencias en el Uso, Manejo y Preservación de los Recursos Naturales 2012

Résumé
Ecosystem services are benefits that society derives from the existence of ecosystems. These have been c1assified into four main categories : provisioning, regulating, cultural and supportive. Each ofthese services has attributes of quantity, quality, location and flow time. In this context the importance of hydrological services is revealed by the benefits in the modification of each of its attributes. The main challenge of the large urban areas of developing countries is to address the problem of sustainability of the hydrological service ofwater supply, as these require increasing volumes ofwater and an increased development of infrastructure to meet demand that often exceeds the supply, leading to environmental imbalances. Therefore, the urban area of the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur (BCS), deserves particular attention, as households represent the largest demand sector, with 60.86% of total aquifer water concession in La Paz. The absence of surface water in the region of La Paz, and limited precipitation (one of the lowest nationally) are feature of the climate of the region which has led to the need to remove by pumping groundwater in coastal wells, generating a water deficit revealed by overexploitation of the aquifer by 2.98 million cubic meters CNA (2005), this increase of overexploitation has caused saline intrusion. Because of this and the obvious need to explore alternative sources of water supply for the recovery of the aquifer hydrological service and maintenance the water supply, the purpose of this study is to value economically the hydrological service of the aquifer of La Paz, Through Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and estimate the price and income elasticity of short-and long-term urban water demando The results of this assessment reveal that how households value changes in their welfare that is produced by changes in the conditions of environmentally supply of good water, as measured by its main attribute amount. The results confirm that households are valuing the change in the conditions of supply of good water from the aquifer environment correspond to the variation compensated, the effect of the decrease in utility due to a decrease in disposable income and offset by increased well-being to maintain or improve the hydrological service of water supply aquifer of La Paz. These results have implications for the region related to the use and management policy of water resources, since knowledge of the economic value of the resource is of crucial importance in determining the net benefits of policies and management actions. Willingness to pay represents the estimated consumer surplus, which should be evaluated on the implementation costs of maintenance or improvement of the aquifer water balance. In this paper we estimate the sensitivity of water demand on the pricc, income. socio-demographic determinants as well as the physical characteristics of housing. It was found that water demand is inelastic (0.56 in absolute terms) to changes in the price. The results reveal the importance of pricing structures and permanent increases in rates, for the proper management of water demand for achieving efficient resource use.

Mots Clés : servicio hidrológico ; sobrexplotación ; método de valoración contingente ; disposición a pagar ; elasticidad precio e ingreso.

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Page publiée le 3 octobre 2017