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Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR) 2015

Evaluación de indicadores de sustentabilidad agroecológica en sistemas de producción agrícola de Baja California Sur, México

Alvarez Morales, Yarelis

Titre : Evaluación de indicadores de sustentabilidad agroecológica en sistemas de producción agrícola de Baja California Sur, México.

Auteur : Alvarez Morales, Yarelis

Etablissement de soutenance : Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR)

Grade : Doctorado en Ciencias en el Uso, Manejo y Preservación de los Recursos Naturales 2015

Résumé partiel
In this work agro-ecological sustainability indicators were proposed and evaluated in three semiarid agricultural regions of Baja California Sur (BCS), Santo Domingo Valley (VSD), Vizcaíno-Guerrero Negro Valley (VVGN) and the agricultural basin of La Paz (CALAP), including indicators of climate factors (FC), water (FA), soil (FS), social (FSC) and productive (FP). Analyses were based on the methodological tool "Framework For Management Systems Evaluation incorporating Natural Resource Sustainability Indicators" or MESMIS (Spanish initials). The information was obtained through the study of the three climate types of zones, the physicochemical analysis of soil, and the social and productive characterization of each zone by applying semi-structured individual interviews and direct observation in the field. 39 sustainability indicators whose reference values were estimated based on documentary sources were evaluated. For FC, 5 indicators were selected, of which only two reached favorable score, the best performance was obtained VVGN (0.62) ; however, this factor was deficient in the three regions analyzed. To evaluate FA, seven indicators were selected ; this factor reached acceptable condition at all three locations where the best result was estimated for VSD (0.81). The soil was evaluated from 10 indicators. In the three zons this factor was evaluated as poor. For FSc eight indicators were evaluated ; in this case, the VSD is classified as optimum (0.85), in CALAP this factor was classified as acceptable, while the VVGN was evaluated as poor. For FP 9 indicators were analyzed ; the highest value was obtained in VSD (0.83), for this reason, in this area FP was classified as optimum. The VVGN showed an acceptable condition (0.70), while in the CALAP, productive factor was rated as poor (0.60). According to the proposed thresholds of vulnerability, the region most vulnerable to adverse effects of climate, land degradation processes and water scarcity is the CALAP, whose main indicators were located in the "highly vulnerable" category ; the VVGN also reached that category while the VSD is classified as a "vulnerable" agricultural region. The values of the Holistic Risk Index (IHR) found in the production units suggest that the VSD is an agricultural area more responsive to the environmental disturbances ; for this locality the level "medium" resilience (IHR = 1.8) was assigned, while the CALAP showed the highest IHR (2.4) and a level of "low" resilience. The proposed index “Adaptation to Climate Change” (Iacc) was applied on the main crops of the study areas, where cucumber crop was more adaptive potential for producing areas of the state, with an Iacc = 0.72, while asparagus showed a lower ability to adapt, with Iacc = 0.18. Once determined the Agroecological Sustainability Index (ISAE), it was found that the CALAP reached the lowest rate in the three localities (0.61).

Mots Clés : Indicadores ; Sustentabilidad agroecológica ; Producción agrícola ; Baja California Sur

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Page publiée le 28 septembre 2017