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Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL) 2010

Análisis Fitoquímico y actividad biológica de los extractos de tallos y tejido in vitro de astrophytum myriostigma (lemaire, 1839) y astrophytum capricorne (dietrich, 1922) Fam. Cactaceae

Garza Padrón, Ruth Amelia

Titre : Análisis Fitoquímico y actividad biológica de los extractos de tallos y tejido in vitro de astrophytum myriostigma (lemaire, 1839) y astrophytum capricorne (dietrich, 1922) Fam. Cactaceae

Auteur : Garza Padrón, Ruth Amelia

Etablissement de soutenance : Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL)

Grade : Doctor en Ciencias con Acentuación en Química de Productos Naturales 2010

Résumé
Cactaceae family are endemic of America, have developed diverse adaptations that allow them to survive under extreme conditions of temperature, light and salinity. Their use, are very diverse : material to construct houses and walls, like forage, as medicinal plants, like food source, as well as appreciated by collectors. At the present time this family has retaken importance in industries : pharmaceutics, alimentary, cosmetology and, by the great amount in secondary metabolites. For this reasons and combined to deterioration of wild areas, is necessary to investigate and to develop technologies that allow to preserve these species and to know their possible potential. Objective of present work was culture in vitro of Astrophytum myriostigma (Lemaire) and Astrophytum capricorne (Dietrich), obtained methanolics extracts of plant and in vitro culture and probe its biological activity. Plants were collected, and then established disinfection process and tissue culture. Stems and callus of both species were extracted, using methanol as solvent, and then tested for the presence of functional groups. For biological activity used : bacteria medical interest, brine shrimp, Entamoeba histolytica HM1-IMSS strain and for quantification of free radicals employment technique 1,1-diphenyl-2picrihidrazil. Lethal dose (LD50), inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the effective concentration (EC50) were calculated using the Probit statistical method. Similarity between methanolics extracts of both species was determined by chromatography. Alkaloids and triterpens are presents in stems and callus but methanolic extract of A. myriostigma callus are positive to phenolics oxhidrile, triterpens and flavonoids, whereas that methanolic extract A. capricorne stem are positive carbonil group, triterpens, flavonoids and saponin. Results were not relevant in antimicrobial activity and activity against the brine shrimps nauplii. Results on Entamoeba histolytica were satisfactory for Astrophytum myriostigma since showed an IC50 than the 100µg/mL. Fractionation of methanolics extracts A. myriostigma and A. capricorne indicate that in both species, callus and stem have different secondary metabolites, as shown in the antioxidant activity of the callus A. myriostigma with a EC50 199.19 µg/mL and stem wiyh EC50 3961.39 µg/mL. Callus presents phenolics oxhidrile and flavonoids, unlike the stem.Presence of these metabolites in callus A. myriostigma, are probably due in vitro conditions under explant developed and nutrients present in medium, which act as elicitors inducing metabolites production.

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