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University of London, University College London (1998)

Wildlife economics : A study of direct use values in Botswana’s wildlife sector

Barnes, Jonathan Ian.

Titre : Wildlife economics : A study of direct use values in Botswana’s wildlife sector

Auteur : Barnes, Jonathan Ian.

Etablissement de soutenance : University of London, University College London

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1998

Résumé
The wildlife resources in Botswana were studied to determine their direct use values. Cost- benefit analysis was applied to develop models for wildlife viewing, safari hunting, community-based wildlife use, game ranching, ostrich farming, crocodile farming and ranching, elephant utilisation and wildlife product processing. Various planning and policy options were analysed within the wildlife sector. Contingent valuation was used to estimate economic characteristics of demand for wildlife-viewing tourism. A linear programniing model, which optimises the contribution of use activities to national income, within a framework of policy constraints, was developed for the whole sector. The findings confirm that wildlife in Botswana can contribute positively and sustainably to national income, and that this can happen without loss in biological diversity. Wildlife’s potential contribution will not likely exceed four percent of gross domestic product. The likely flow of positive use values from the wildlife sector justifies anticipated public expenditures in it. In expansion of wildlife use, emphasis should be placed on wildlife viewing, and, to a lesser extent, ostrich production, crocodile production, and community wildlife use in high value areas. Later, as capital, labour and management resources become more abundant, the sector should be diversified to develop all uses fully. A ban on consumptive uses of wildlife would result in 16 percent less gross value added from wildlife in the sector, and would involve use of 75 percent less land. Even with consumptive use, some 88 percent of the wildlife estate cannot generate any direct use value from wildlife in the medium term. The survival of wildlife in Botswana depends largely on its ability to generate economic value. This can happen through an array of uses yielding direct use values, within a framework of land use zoning which precludes loss of indirect use and non-use values, which should also be captured where possible.

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