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Technische Universität Berlin (2016)

Wadi Bili catchment in the Eastern Desert Flash floods, geological model and hydrogeology

Hadidi, Ahmed

Titre : Wadi Bili catchment in the Eastern Desert Flash floods, geological model and hydrogeology

Das Wassereinzugsgebiet "Wadi Bili" in der östlichen Wüste Ägyptens Sturzfluten, geologisches Modell und Hydrogeologie

Auteur : Hadidi, Ahmed

Université de soutenance : Technische Universität Berlin

Grade : Doktor der Naturwissenschaften - Dr. rer. nat.- 2016

Résumé
Rainfalls in the Eastern Desert of Egypt are rare, but in some cases they are intensive and cause flash floods. These flash floods can have devastating effects, but in the deserts this might be a treasured resource for fresh water. The very high potential evaporation rate in the Eastern Desert entails artificial groundwater recharge to be the best solution to store huge amounts of water. In order to choose the best technique for recharge, runoff amount and reservoir parameters calculations of the uppermost strata are needed. There are no flood nor rain gauges in the wadis of the Eastern Desert of Egypt, except for a few weather stations in the coastal cities. As a result, there are no statistics available on the runoff volume during the flash floods. On the other hand, the Quaternary alluvial fans on the Red Sea coast have very good reservoir parameters, but are affected by sea water intrusion and sporadically exhibit clay strata to a small extent, which is difficult to be used as a bedrock to store the fresh water. Flash flood event parameters of March 2014 were measured. They give an example of the possible runoff volume with a relation to the precipitation. Temporal rain gauges were distributed in the wadi Bili before the event and their data has been analyzed and compared together with the satellite data for better estimations. The runoff through the Bili Canyon has been estimated using flowmeter measurements. A lithological model has been created according to the collected data of four boreholes and 15 liner samples. The concepts of sequence stratigraphy have been applied to the model in order to understand the detailed stratigraphy of the wadi Bili Alluvial Fan. Two main mud horizons were found to have a wide lateral extension, which makes them a target as bedrock to store the water. The reservoir total porosity and drainable porosity were estimated by studying 29 samples in the lab and integrating the results into the lithological model. This research proves the feasibility of introducing artificial recharge in coastal plains of the Red Sea.

Mots clés  : geology hydrogeology sequence stratigraphy TRMM Eastern Desert flash floods Geologie Hydrogeologie sequenzielle Stratigraphie östliche Wüste

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