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Universität zu Köln (2016)

Convective Cold Pools over the Atlas Mountains and Their Influence on the Saharan Heat Low

Redl, Robert

Titre : Convective Cold Pools over the Atlas Mountains and Their Influence on the Saharan Heat Low

Auteur : Redl, Robert

Université de soutenance : Universität zu Köln.

Grade : Doktorgrades der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät 2016

Résumé
The West African Monsoon (WAM) and its representation in numerical models are strongly influenced by the Saharan Heat Low (SHL), a low-pressure system driven by radiative heating over the central Sahara and ventilated by the cold and moist inflow from adjacent oceans. It has recently been shown that a significant part of the southerly moisture flux into the SHL originates from convective cold pools over the Sahel. These density currents driven by evaporation of rain are largely absent in models with parameterized convection. This crucial issue has been hypothesized to contribute to the inability of many climate models to reproduce the variability of the WAM. Here, the role of convective cold pools approaching the SHL from the Atlas Mountains, which are a strong orographic trigger for deep convection in Northwest Africa, is analyzed. Knowledge about the frequency of these events, as well as their impact on large-scale dynamics, is required to understand their contribution to the variability of the SHL and to known model uncertainties. The first aspect is addressed through the development of an objective and automated method for the generation of multi-year climatologies not available before. The algorithm combines freely available standard surface observations with satellite microwave data. Representativeness of stations and influence of their spatial density are addressed by comparison to a satellite-only climatology. Applying this algorithm to data from automated weather stations and manned synoptic stations in and south of the Atlas Mountains reveals the frequent occurrence. On the order of 6 events per month are detected from May to September when the SHL is in its northernmost position. The events tend to cluster into several-days long convectively active periods, often with strong events on consecutive days. This study is the first to diagnose dynamical impacts of such periods on the SHL, based on simulations of two example cases using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model at convection-permitting resolution. Sensitivity experiments with artificially removed cold pools as well as different resolutions and parameterizations are conducted. Results indicate increases in surface pressure of more than 1 hPa and significant moisture transports into the desert over several days. This moisture affects radiative heating and thus the energy balance of the SHL. Even though cold pool events north of the SHL are less frequent when compared to their Sahelian counterparts, it is shown that they gain importance due to their temporal clustering on synoptic timescale. Together with studies focusing on the Sahel, this work emphasizes the need for improved parameterization schemes for deep convection in order to produce more reliable climate projections for the WAM.

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