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Technische Universität Dortmund (2017)

A framework for inclusive transport planning in medium-sized Sub-Saharan African cities The case of cycling in Kisumu, Kenya

Alando, Walter

Titre : A framework for inclusive transport planning in medium-sized Sub-Saharan African cities The case of cycling in Kisumu, Kenya

Auteur : Alando, Walter

Université de soutenance : Technische Universität Dortmund

Grade : Doctor of Engineering (Dr.-Ing.) 2017

Résumé
Cycling remains poorly integrated into urban transport in many sub-Saharan African cities despite its potential to contribute positively to inclusive transport. Its active use in many medium-sized cities of the region has not elicited much support in terms of conducive street spaces and traffic conditions either. This dissertation reasons that this inattention to cycling is perpetuated by neoliberal transport planning, which ignores the needs of the poor majority who are the dominant users of the mode in the region. Specifically, the tools that support this neoliberal transport planning are thought to be incapable of identifying the relevance of creating street spaces that enable cycling. Consequently, transport planning aggravates the social disadvantage that cyclists face. This dissertation therefore questions whether social exclusion can form a basis for revealing the need for street spaces and traffic conditions that support cycling. The main objective of the study is to find out whether, and the extent to which, the concept of social exclusion can offer a complementary framework for identifying the need to support cycling. The study searches for empirical evidence of this exclusion from three main sources, namely i) the conditions of street spaces and traffic thereupon ; ii) the objectives of policies that relate to the changing transport conditions ; and iii) the ongoing transport policy reforms and infrastructure development. This empirical evidence is collected from Kisumu, a medium-sized city in western Kenya. The mixed methods approach is employed to investigate these dimensions of social exclusion. This method enables the study to draw on the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Accordingly, the study sets off by qualitatively identifying the dimensions of exclusion from expert interviews, interviews with users of different modes, and field observations. Quantitative data on these dimensions is then collected through household surveys, expert interviews, and reference to secondary sources. Resulting data is analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Data on the conditions of streets and traffic behaviour is analysed through a log-linear analysis to find its association with exclusion. Multinomial logistic regression analysis is conducted to understand the influence of the changing transport conditions on mode choices and by extension the restriction of cycling. The study also conducts a content analysis of economic and transport policies to find out how they accommodate cycling. The results of these analyses are interpreted quantitatively from the statistical coefficients while their qualitative meaning for exclusion is sought from qualitative sources. The key findings of the study are that cycling is excluded by the conditions of the streets and traffic, changes in transport conditions and the pursuit of policies that emphasise capital transport infrastructure projects but fail to consider the implications of these projects for the transport of the poor. These results are interpreted within the framework of the critical urban theory to find out if social exclusion can be a basis for negotiating street spaces and traffic that address the needs of cycling. The critical urban theory argues against the modes of thought and behaviour that supress aspirations, values, and ideas which do not conform to the rationality of the dominant thought. In this regard, the prevailing neoliberal orientation to transport planning in Kisumu is critiqued for creating development priorities, policies, and conditions of infrastructure and traffic that suppress modes that do not conform to motorisation that this orientation holds to signify modernity. The study thus presents social exclusion as the frame through which the shortcomings of the prevailing orientation to transport planning can be examined and be tackled. The original contribution of this dissertation is its conception of transport-related social exclusion through the active exclusion of cyclists from street spaces and its demonstration of how this exclusion is reinforced by development priorities, policies, and conditions of streets spaces that result from neoliberal transport planning. The study argues that inclusive transport planning in medium-sized sub-Saharan African cities should facilitate cyclists and users of other excluded travel modes by eliminating these conditions of street spaces that hinder them from participating in mobility to access destinations. These conditions are presented by the study as the new dimensions of impedance to accessibility. Accordingly, they should be incorporated in accessibility evaluation to ensure that transport decisions are sensitive to the needs of cyclists and other excluded modes.

Mots clés  : Boda boda ; cycling ; inclusive cities ; Kisumu ; transport-related social exclusion ; transport disadvantage ; travel behaviour ; street spaces ; urban transport ; motorcycle-tax

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Page publiée le 15 octobre 2017