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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2015 → Food and nutrition insecurity risk mapping (FNIRM) in urban and periurban areas in West African cities (Tamale and Ouagadougou)

Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau (2015)

Food and nutrition insecurity risk mapping (FNIRM) in urban and periurban areas in West African cities (Tamale and Ouagadougou)

Chagomoka, Takemore

Titre : Food and nutrition insecurity risk mapping (FNIRM) in urban and periurban areas in West African cities (Tamale and Ouagadougou)

Auteur : Chagomoka, Takemore

Université de soutenance : Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

Grade : Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. rer. nat.) 2015

Résumé partiel
Food and nutrition insecurity remains a global challenge, with sub-Saharan Africa bearing a large share of this burden. Women, mostly of reproductive age (15 – 49 years) and children under five years are at the pinnacle of this problem. It has traditionally been looked at as a problem of rural areas taking in consideration that urban households are better placed than their rural counterparts in terms of infrastructure, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, recent trends in this region show more evidence of rising urban poverty, in the midst of growing cities and looming food shortages. These challenges of food and nutrition insecurity in and around cities lead urban dwellers to engage in farming activities to help satisfy their food needs. The global share of African urban dwellers is projected to rise from 11.3 % in 2010 to a 20.2 % by 2050, further increasing urban food demand. Although many studies have reported on food and nutrition insecurity and its interaction with agriculture, little is known, however, about how this differs between multiple locations along the urban - rural continuum. The urban – rural continuum approach enhances formulation of efficient urban sustainability policies as it is inclusive and addresses sustainability in areas large enough to encompass urban, periurban and rural areas unlike other approaches which focus on the dichotomy between urban and rural areas. Information on spatial variation of household food and nutrition insecurity can be very useful in understanding its dynamics in various locations and help in resource allocation and proper intervention targeting. The primary objective of the study was to understand and map the dynamics of household food and nutrition insecurity in urban, periurban and rural settings. The study was conducted along the urban - rural continuum of two sub-Saharan African cities ; in Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Furthermore, the role played by urban, periurban and rural agriculture was investigated. The study used a mixed method approach, with a transect approach building the foundation for data collection. Transects, 2 km wide and 70 km from Ouagadougou and Tamale central markets, were laid radially. Based on the relevant literature, working definitions of urban, periurban and rural areas were established. Within 10 km of the city centre was considered as urban, between 10 km to 40 km as periurban, and between 40 to 70 km as rural. All households along the transects were digitised and randomly selected using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A total of 240 households were selected (4 transects x 3 zones x 20 households) in each location (Tamale and Ouagadougou). The waypoint data was transferred to a Global Positioning System (GPS) device, which helped in locating and identification of sampled households. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on : household food insecurity using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) ; household nutrition insecurity using Women`s Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS) and anthropometric measurements ; household agricultural activities (crop and livestock production) and household food coping strategies using the Coping Strategy Index (CSI). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were used to verify household coping strategies. In contrary to many other studies, the chosen approach allows much better to localize food related problems on different scales.

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