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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → Evaluation of the utilization of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) for local livelihood, biomass production and wetland restoration in Inner Mongolia, China

Ernst Moritz Arndt Universität Greifswald (2015)

Evaluation of the utilization of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) for local livelihood, biomass production and wetland restoration in Inner Mongolia, China

Köbbing, Jan Felix

Titre : Evaluation of the utilization of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) for local livelihood, biomass production and wetland restoration in Inner Mongolia, China

Auteur : Köbbing, Jan Felix

Université de soutenance : Ernst Moritz Arndt Universität Greifswald

Grade : Doktors des Naturwissenschaften (Dr.re.nat) 2015

Résumé
Wetlands are often considered as wastelands as they cannot be used as regular farmlands, for which they are usually drained to turn them into agricultural land. Such a limited perspective on wetlands overlooks the multiple ecosystem services that wetlands provide for humans and nature. Some of those services are the storage and purification of water, provision of food and raw materials, regulation of local climate and using as a habitat. Many of such services are provided by nature for ’free’ and therefore have no monetary value on traditional markets. In the case of China, wetlands cover 8% of the total area but are in a serious threatening situation through there is some success in restoring parts of them in recent years. In the last 50 years more than 20% of Chinese wetlands got lost due to pollution, water diversion and dams, reclamation, drainage and over-exploitation resouces. Water resources and wetlands −especially in North and North-East of China, are under pressure as these are arid or semi-arid regions. Yet, wetlands provide important ecosystem services for aforementioned region and contribute significantly to local livelihood in many ways, for instance the provision of food and raw materials. The aim of this thesis was to make an assessment- in both economic and ecologic terms, of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) at Lake Wuliangsuhai, where reed can be found in large amounts and is locally relevant. Reed was investigated at a case study in Inner Mongolia, China, which in turn was part of the research project “Sustainable Water Management and Wetland Restoration in Settlement of Arid Central Asia”, which took place in Inner Mongolia, China. My work includes several aspects : First, an in depth literature review was done to explore the commercialization of reed worldwide. Countless of utilization possibilities could be found, many only in a small-scale (e.g. food), some others innovative and/or still in an experimental stage (e.g. ethanol). Specifically regarding Lake Wuliangsuhai, it can be concluded that only large-scale, ’simple’ solutions seem to be feasible. In particular, the use of reed in energy combustion or as a building material seems to be promising. Afterwards the reed biomass productivity at Lake Wuliangsuhai was measured in two field campaigns and projected to the whole lake. This data were crucial as they were the basis to estimate both the available total biomass and the impact of harvesting on the lake’s nutrient budget, as a considerable amount of nutrients is removed annually from the lake by reed cutting. After determining the available reed sources, the reed utilization was explored by qualitative interviews and mapped with the Netchain Approach. The different stakeholders involved in the reed business and their income shares were outlined. It become clear that the reed utilization for paper production is hardly profitable due to a wide range of reasons. Based on these findings four possible scenarios for an innovative reed energy use at Lake Wuliangsuhai were analysed and evaluated. Reed energy use is economically feasible under certain conditions, but it is hardly competitive against the cheaper and locally available coal. Finally, Lake Wuliangsuhai was set into a more comprehensive perspective, which also involved the irrigation system upstream. Four scenarios illuminated how current decisions will impact the future of the lake. The work reported in this thesis revealed the following main insights and recommendations for the management of Lake Wuliangsuhai : 1. A more holistic management approach for Lake Wuliangsuhai is needed, including also the whole Hetao Irrigation Area. 2. The lake is unique in this extremely dry area and should be considered not only for providing market goods, but also for non-market services, such as wastewater treatment. 3. Reed role in lake restoration can be shown and should beconsidered in further management decisions. 4. The local reed economy is challenged from many sites. However, also a local energetic utilization seems barely profitable. 5. Due to high relevance of reed for the local economy and ecology, the government should support the management administration of the lake. In summary, the multiple social, ecologic and economic values of reed at Lake Wuliangsuhai can be shown. As previous information about the topic was exiguous, this thesis provides a first comprehensive overview which enables decision makers to come to information based decisions for the future of the lake.

Mots clés  : Schilf , China , Innere Mongolei , Feuchtgebiet , Papier , Schilfrohr , Erneuerbare Energien , Biomasse

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Page publiée le 23 septembre 2017