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Universität Hohenheim (2016)

Optimizing community-based breeding for indigenous goat breeds in Ethiopia

Belete, Tatek Woldu

Titre : Optimizing community-based breeding for indigenous goat breeds in Ethiopia

Optimierung der dörflichen Zucht für einheimische Ziegenrassen in Äthiopien

Auteur : Belete, Tatek Woldu

Université de soutenance : Universität Hohenheim

Grade : “Doktor der Agrarwissenschaften” (Dr.sc.agr.) 2016

Résumé partiel
Goats are vital sources of meat, milk, manure, income and social security for poor smallholder farmers living in harsh and dry environments. Over the last decade, goat population in Ethiopia increased more rapidly than sheep and cattle population. Despite the current boom of goat population, contribution of goats for national meat and meat production as well as for export earnings is minimal. Moreover, the carcass yield of local goats remained below the East African and the world average over the last decade. Slow growth rates of goats, high mortality rate and low commercial off-take rate were the major challenges of smallholder goat production in Ethiopia. In order to overcome some of the these constraints, designing a sustainable community-based breeding program (CBBP) which considers local breeds, farmers’ trait preferences and local breeding organizations is a promising entry point. Understanding the multifaceted functions of goats across diverse production systems and identifying breeding objective traits and their relative economic importance are crucial for designing and implementing CBBPs. So far, choice experiments (CE) were employed as one option to identify breeding objective traits and elicit their economic values, but limited information is currently available in providing a comprehensive understanding of trait preferences from producers and market perspectives. Furthermore, sustainable genetic improvement programs not only focus on the technical feasibilities, but also analyze the organizational aspects of the breeding scheme under specified framework conditions. The overall objective of the study is to contribute for designing optimized goat community-based breeding programs that consider the multiple functions of goats, producers’ trait preferences, market demands and organizational frameworks by taking into consideration of the diverse goat production systems. The specific objectives are (i) to analyze factors affecting contributions of goat farming to household economic success and household dietary diversity in three goat production systems, (ii) to investigate goat breeding objectives and economic values of traits based on revealed and stated preferences and (iii) to identify major stakeholders, organizational networks and other elements of organization and their influence on the establishment and successful operation of community-based goat breeding. The study was conducted in Abergele, Konso and Meta Robi districts of Ethiopia representing arid agro-pastoral (AAP), semi-arid agro-pastoral (SAAP) and highland mixed crop-livestock (HMCL) systems, respectively. Household interviews using semi-structured questionnaires were conducted involving 180 households. The survey focused on income and costs of the major household agricultural enterprises as well as dietary diversity of households. Gross margin (GM) and net benefit (considering tangible and intangible benefits) were used as indicators of economic success of goat keeping. Linear mixed model (SAS version 9.3) was employed to analyze factors affecting economic success of goat keeping and ordinal regression was used to predict effects of socio-economic variables on households’ dietary diversity. A choice experiment (CE) involving 360 farmers was conducted to identify farmers’ trait preferences across diverse goat production systems. Besides, in order to understand buyers’ revealed preferences (RP) for goat traits, market data of 796 goat transactions were collected. Relationships between goats’ attributes and prices were estimated by hedonic modeling, while economic values of traits included in the CE were estimated by conditional logit (CL) model. Part worth value of a trait which indicates the relative importance of a trait was calculated based on the implicit prices farmers were willing to pay (WTP) for an improvement of a trait. NLOGIT 4.0 econometric software was used for analyzing the CE and RP data. The organization of smallholder goat breeding from village to national level were investigated through six focus group discussions with 68 goat keepers, key informant interviews with personnel of ten public and seven private institutions and social network analysis (SNA) of goat production and marketing structures. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data generated from key informant interviews. Social Network Visualizer (SocNetV) was employed to visualize the social network structures.

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