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Utrecht University (2014)

Finding Community-Based Solutions for Human-Wildlife Conflicts in the Conservation of Mammals in Kenya and Tanzania.

Bakker, C.E.

Titre : Finding Community-Based Solutions for Human-Wildlife Conflicts in the Conservation of Mammals in Kenya and Tanzania.

Auteur : Bakker, C.E.

Université de soutenance : Utrecht University

Grade : Master thesis 2014

Résumé
Human Wildlife conflicts (HWC) are a common problem in African societies. These are conflicts that involve people and threatened wildlife resulting in for example crop raiding and livestock predation. Kenya and Tanzania are also African countries that face the problems of HWCs because of dense human populations and high assemblages of wildlife. To find effective management strategies for the future, current strategies will be assessed by an analytical framework that covers the key point for a community-based solution for the HWC. The key points used in this framework are ; ‘cooperation local communities and wildlife managers’, (Self)-sustainability, Tailor-made approach, judging the effectiveness, use of traditional methods and animal conservation. In this study, it is questioned how the HWC is reflected in Kenya and Tanzania. Furthermore, it is questioned how the HWC is currently managed in Kenya and Tanzania. Last, it will be discussed how current HWC management strategies fit within the analytical framework, and which strategies are most effective in reducing HWCs. It is shown that HWCs mainly occur around the borders of national parks, where people and wildlife intersect with each other. The animal may impair the safety of humans (injury or death), they reduce the food security by crop raiding and livestock predation. There are also indirect effects of HWCs such as developmental and social impairment. Also wildlife is affected by humans. Humans occupy the former habitats of wildlife, or treat them by hunting. This may have severe effects on the ecosystem and conservation of animals in an area, especially when key species are threatened. There are already many types of HWC management strategies. Generally, they fall in four main categories ; Human management, Crop/Livestock management, Wildlife management and environmental management. In addition there are also community-based management plans such as Integrated Conservation and Development Programs (ICDP) and Community-based Natural Resource Management/Community-based Conservation (CBNRM/CBCs). When analysing all those strategies within the analytical framework, it is shown that the ICDPs and CBNRM/CBCs in combination with an increased human awareness and the use of fences cover all the key points. There is chosen for these strategies because they do not miss many key points for the framework by themselves. However, there should always be invested in monitoring and judging HWC management strategies, since this is currently often lacking. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the HWC is still an important problem that must be tackled in Kenya and Tanzania. Based on the analysis using the analytical framework, a combination of different methods would be most successful. In here ICDPs, CBNRM/CBC’s in combination with an increase of human awareness and the use of fences may give insights to create a successful new HWC management strategy for the future.

Mots clés : HWC, Human, Wildlife, Conflict, Kenya, Tanzania, Africa, Community-based, Solution, Strategy, Mammal, Conservation

Présentation

Page publiée le 27 janvier 2018