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University of Birzeit, Ramallah (2007)

Human Settlement Patterns in the Central Palestinian Mountains Case Study : (The western Bani Zaid District ) (Kufr Ein , Alnnabi Saleh , Qarawa Bani Zaid, Deir Gassaneh and Beit Rima

عرار، شروق عرسان يوسف

Titre : Human Settlement Patterns in the Central Palestinian Mountains Case Study : (The western Bani Zaid District ) (Kufr Ein , Alnnabi Saleh , Qarawa Bani Zaid, Deir Gassaneh and Beit Rima

Auteur : عرار، شروق عرسان يوسف

Université de soutenance : University of Birzeit, Ramallah, Palestine

Grade : Master 2007

Résumé
On this planet, Man performs various activities that reflect human relationship with the Natural environment. The most important of such mutual relationship between Man and the environment is perhaps rural settlement. The need for providing habitation made Man interact with land and become more understanding of, more acquainted with, and more precise in dealing with the surrounding environment. Through studying the locations and distribution of these villages, we find that their positions in the past are different from it at present ; This is apparent also in comparing the old architecture with the modern architecture. In this comparison, we find that there are differences in used construction materials, shapes of building and patterns of distribution of such habitations. This is influenced by several factors which include, but not limited to the factors of security needs which necessitate selecting the location that forms a natural secure place to protect humans against aggression, internal and external dangers. In this context, the summits or bottoms of mountains ensure security and safety for the inhabitants. Another factor which affects selecting the location of habitation is economic needs, as location should ensure providing essential life requirements such as water and food. So we find that the villages of this case study are established near water springs, plains and forests. Also some of these villages are established in locations that resist climatic conditions. Thus we find such locations opposite the sun ; or they protect the villages against western wind, as well as the rainy wind comes to the summits or bottoms of the mountains. Adding to the aforementioned factors, the historical, geographical and religious factors affect selecting the locations of the villages ; we find that some villages are located over an ancient village or near the shrines of the holy men. As a humble attempt, the researcher conducted a study on the patterns of settlement in the region of the case study including the locations of those villages and their distribution to such locations. The researcher also studied the most important factors of selecting such locations. Through this study, the researcher sought to add to the scientific knowledge. To achieve this objective, the researcher identified the study region which consists of North West Ramallah region as a part of Palestine central mountains region. The researcher also, identified the differences in the used building materials and the ancient and modern building techniques. and made comparison between them. _ The most significant results of the study :-Through her field study on the region, the researcher could mark the following results :  There are patterns of village locations such as mountainside villages which are established at the bottom of the mountain like the villages of Kufr Ein and Qarawa Bani Zaid .  There are the patterns of rural settlements which are established on the summits of mountains ; such summits should be flat such as the locations of Deir Gassaneh and Beit Rima villages ; as well as the locations on the lower and flat land on the mountainside or mountain shopes surface such as ALNnabi Saleh village.  The compound pattern has several types : the linear pattern which is applied on the study area , as in the past , the settlements had the circular pattern , while now , some changes have occurred on the pattern which takes the stream-line along with transportation road

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