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Wageningen Universiteit Pays Bas (1998)

Et demain l’agriculture ? : options techniques et mesures politiques pour un developpement agricole durable en Afrique subsaharienne : cas du Cercle de Koutiala en zone sud du Mali

Sissoko, K.

Titre : Et demain l’agriculture ? : options techniques et mesures politiques pour un developpement agricole durable en Afrique subsaharienne : cas du Cercle de Koutiala en zone sud du Mali

Auteur : Sissoko, K.

Université de soutenance : Wageningen Universiteit

Grade : PhD thesis 1998

Résumé partiel _ Global situation in Sub-Saharan countries
Economic development in the Sub-Saharan countries is strongly linked to the agricultural sector, which constitutes the major part of gross national product (GNP) in most of these countries. However, agricultural productivity and production in the area are very low due to erratic rainfall and especially the low level of soil fertility (Penning de Vries & Djitèye, 199 ; van Keulen & Breman, 1990). Considered world-wide, it is one of the regions with the most unfavourable combination of low agricultural productivity and high population growth. The potential for economic development is limited, because of environmental, agro-technical, socio-economic and institutional constraints. Natural resource degradation is most directly linked to (Oldeman et al., 1991) practicing non-sustainable land use systems, particularly agricultural production techniques without application of mineral or organic fertilisers (24% of the crop land) ; over-exploitation of pasture (49% of the area) ; over-exploitation of woody resources (27% of the woody land). The most important single cause of degradation is the depletion of soil nutrients, including organic matter. Land degradation has serious consequences for agricultural productivity and production, and the availability of arable land. It has been estimated that the availability of arable land will decrease from the current 0.28 ha per capita to 0.17 ha in 2025 (WRI, 1990) and 0.15 ha in 2050 (FAO 1991)

The situation in Mali
The economic situation in Mali is characterized by a low GNP per capita (around $270 per annum). The primary sector is the most important one, contributing 46% to GNP, mainly from arable farming and livestock activities (DNSI, 1992). More than 80 % of the work force is employed in the agricultural sector, which generates around 75% of the export revenues. Low soil fertility and degradation of natural resources are the most important constraints for agricultural development in Mali. For example, in Southern Mali, the value of the nutrients (at current fertilizer prices, based on replacement value) lost in traditional cropping systems has been estimated (van der Pol, 1992) at about half the value of the gross margin. Hence, a large part of farmers’ income originates from soil depletion. The study area is the ’Cercle de Koutiala’ in Southern Mali, with a total area of 9075 km 2and 286 244 inhabitants, i.e. a population density of about 31 per km 2(BCR, 1991). The Cercle de Koutiala is located at the border of the Soudano-Sahelian zone with monomodal rainfall at an average of 980 mm/year (Sivakumar et al. , 1984). Six main types of soils have been distinguis

Mots clés : agricultural development / policy / economic development / sustainability / production / techniques / mali / africa south of sahara / measures

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Page publiée le 10 juin 2008, mise à jour le 30 mai 2022