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Wageningen Universiteit (1997)

A participatory agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia

Bekele - Tesemma, A.

Titre : A participatory agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia

Auteur : Bekele - Tesemma, A.

Université de soutenance  : Wageningen Universiteit

Grade : PhD thesis 1997

The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number of reasons for the failure. Methodical and technological problems are evident. Exclusion of farmers and their indigenous knowledge at all levels of planning and implementation, the use of uniform and ’foreign’ soil conservation and reforestation technologies, mistrust between farmers and facilitators, farmers’ bias to production over conservation, miss-use of food-for-work programmes in conservation works, lack of conducive land tenure and tree usufruct have all contributed. Success in the effort calls for construction of an approach by which the traditional soil and water conservation and agroforestry knowledge of farmers can be studied, adapted and used. Therefore, farmers themselves were necessarily involved in the study, adaptation, implementation and evaluation of the rehabilitation work. The conceptual framework and the research questions were designed to reflect these issues and concerns. The research has been farmer-participatory. It is an action research, which is conducted both at community/catchment-level and at a household/farm-level. Farmerparticipatory trust building, socioeconomic diagnosis, enviromnental assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation methods are researched. The research is administered in a soft-system approach. The outcome of the research is a participatory agroforestry approach by which soil conservation is benefiting. It is composed of ’six sub-processes’ that each are inter-linked in a logical order. · The first sub-process deals with methods of approaching the farmer(s) and finding appropriate extension methods that can secure genuine trust and acceptance of development facilitators. Indigenous means of approaching farmers and trust building are devised. · The second sub-process deals with a comprehensive social diagnostic approach. Appropriate methods of development extension, identification of production desires, social limitations and production potentials, indigenous land husbandry technologies are studied and identified. · The third sub-process deals with methods of environmental assessment. The application of GIS output maps for synthesizing the information and enhancing the participatory research work on site diagnosis and relative land potential assessments is presented. · The fourth sub-process focuses on methods of reconciling the findings in the human sector with the site factor. A methodology by which traditional soil and water conservation and reforestation skills, production desires and targets of farmers are understood and used in planning is devised. It involves preparing prescriptions for each of the planning units developed in the sub-process. · The fifth sub-process focuses on adapting catchment level plans and prescriptions to farm and farmer-level situations, technology appropriations and implementations. A methodology by which these activities of the sub-process are conducted is devised. · The six sub-process dwells on conducting tests on sustaining land quality, cost effectiveness and adoption ease of the implemented agroforestry development options at farm level. A methodology by which the participatory evaluation can be conducted is developed.

Mots clés : erosion control / water conservation / soil conservation / soil / erosion / soil exhaustion / depletion / participation / forestry / agroforestry / ethiopia

Résumé de la thèse

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Page publiée le 10 juin 2008, mise à jour le 1er juin 2022