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Technische Universitaet Wien (1997)

An approach to urban housing problems caused by rural-urban migration, the cause of the Sudan, focus on the capital city Khartoum

Elgoni, A.

Titre : An approach to urban housing problems caused by rural-urban migration, the cause of the Sudan, focus on the capital city Khartoum

Auteur : Elgoni A

Akad. Grad : Thesis.Doctoral 1997

Université de soutenance : Institut fuer Oertliche Raumplanung ; Fakultaet fuer Raumplanung und Architektur ; Technische Universitaet Wien

Résumé
The situation touched by this study could be summarized as follows : the problem in the Sudan starts with its unstable centrally-oriented political-economic system and the kind of circumstances it has been generating. The political-economic centralization, which is partially because of historical reasons, has led to irregular distribution of the national resources. The concentration has always been put on major cities, especially the capital - Khartoum. This kind of policy, which served colonial purposes in the past, has not much changed after independence. Remote rural areas remained always marginal. This unbalanced socio-economic development between the rural and the urban Sudan, in addition to the environmental and political factors that took place in the last decades, have led to an acute deterioration in all aspects of life in rural areas. Due to this situation, the rural population migrates excessively to urban areas especially to the capital, where socio-economic services are mainly located. This unplanned demographic changes have led to big drops of agricultural and livestock output in rural areas and a tremendous aggravation of living conditions in urban areas. As a result of rural-urban migration, Khartoum’s population tends to nearly double each ten years. The number of the half million inhabitants at the early 1950s has jumped to reach 3.6 million by 1990. In 1985, 40 % of them were living in squatter - illegal - housing with miserable conditions. This enormous population growth in the capital, is reflected in a rapid horizontal urban sprawl. So doubling the population means doubling the city area. As a result to this, the social and basic services cannot cope effectively, their costs increase rapidly, land for housing is diminishing and the city’s physical integration is endangered day by day. On the other hand, this gradual disintegration strongly hits the social life, which ultimately depends on family ties and co-operation. This bitter situation on the one hand is faced by two staggering facts on the other hand. The first is that the rural-urban migration, which is the main aggravating factor, is an ongoing process, simply because all reasons behind it are still dominant. The second fact concerns the official efforts to control the situation, which with few exceptions proved a total failure and inability. According to the findings, the recommendations suggested by the study cover three main levels : the political-economic level, the housing policy level and the physical planning level.

Mots clé : Sudan / Architektur / Landflucht / Urbanisierung / Sozialstruktur / politisch-oekonomische Zentralisation / Khartoum — architecture / rural-urban migration / social structure / urbanization / political-economic centralization

Présentation : Österreichische Dissertationsdatenbank

Page publiée le 11 juin 2008, mise à jour le 22 janvier 2019