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Université de Ouagadougou (1993)

Etude des aflatoxines au Burkina Faso : détermination quantitative et des aflatoxines de l’arachide par des tests biochimiques et immunologiques

Nikiema, Philippe Augustin

Titre : Etude des aflatoxines au Burkina Faso : détermination quantitative et des aflatoxines de l’arachide par des tests biochimiques et immunologiques

Auteur : Nikiema, Philippe Augustin

Etablissement de soutenance : Université de Ouagadougou

Grade : DOCTORAT DE SPECIALITE : Sciences Biologiques Appliquées 1993

Résumé
This work is dealing with the study ofaflatoxin contamination of groundnuts in Burkina Fa< ;o. In this country, almost 1(X).OOO tons ofgroundnuLs arc harvested pcr ycar, and are consummed under differcnt forms : - Pcanut kcmcls - Boiled or roastcd pcanuLs - Peanut pastes - Peanut butter - Defated peanut and suggar nuLs. The quantitative and qualitative evaluation of afIatoxin contamination of peanuLs and peanut producLs showed that the four major aflatoxins (AFBl, AFB2 AFGl and AFG2) are found in peanuLs, more often at levels higher than the permissible limite of 3ÛJ..lg/lcg, and often, higher than the toxicity level of 25011g/kg. A registration of physico-chemical paramcters evolution and afIatoxin production in peanuts during a storage period of 12 mounths is studied. The alteration of physico-chemical parameters (proteins, faty acids and carbohydrates) is accompanied by an enhancement in aflatoxin production. The seed moisture content, the metabolism of faty acids and the hygroscopic capacity of seeds seemed to he the main factors that influence aflatoxin production during the storage. A risk estimate ofprimary liver cancer due to the consumption of peanut pastes contaminated by aflatoxins is evaluated in a population of Bobo Dioulasso (S.W. of the country). Preliminary results shown that a regular intake ofpeanut pastes contaminated by afIatoxins may induce Iiver cancer after 35 years or 17 years of the intake meal, depending on the consumption frequency. In order to conduct a research on detoxification strategies, a strain ofAspergillusflavus producing aflatoxins is isolated. Inhibition assays of growth and aflatoxin production made on this strain with Allium salivum extracts gave the foIIowing conclusions : - The mould growth is progressively reduced when cultivated on medium containing 10% and 20% ofAIIium extracts. - The inhibition of afIatoxin production is complete after 30 days ofa culture incubation on Reddy medium containing 20% of AIIium extracts.

Mots clés : Aflatoxins, Peanuts, Aspergillusflavus, Physico-chemical parameters, Primary liver cancer, Inhibition, Allium salivum, Burkina Faso.

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