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University of New Mexico (2016)

Plant-biocrust interactions mediated by the fungal loop

Dettweiler-Robinson, Eva

Titre : Plant-biocrust interactions mediated by the fungal loop.

Auteur : Dettweiler-Robinson, Eva.

Université de soutenance : University of New Mexico

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2016

Plant-microbial interactions influence biogeochemical cycles. Plants and biological soil crusts are primary producers in drylands. Biocrusts include cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, algae, fungi, bacteria, and archaea on the soil surface, some of which fix atmospheric nitrogen. I investigated controls on biocrust carbon fluxes and their contribution to ecosystem fluxes, the incorporation of plant-derived carbon into biocrusts, and the role of soil fungi in promoting performance of plants and biocrusts. Biocrusts responded to temperature and moisture differently by biome. Biocrusts in grasslands/shrublands contributed >25% of total summertime ecosystem respiration, but biocrusts in savannas/woodlands contributed <1%. Biocrusts contributed <2% to GPP in any biome. To augment their native photosynthesis, biocrusts may include 16% plant-derived carbon. Fungal connections improved plant and biocrust performance and reduced differences in the CN ratio between organisms compared to when connections were impeded. Investigation of interactions among biocrusts, plants, and fungi has improved understanding of resource cycling in drylands.

Mots Clés : Biological soil crusts ; Carbon flux ; Stable Isotopes ; Fungal Loop ; Biology ; Desert Ecology ; Ecology and Evolutionary Biology ; Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology

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