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University of York (United Kingdom) 1996

The politics of development and stagnation of civil society Experiences of Zambia and Botswana

Endo, Mitsugi

Titre : The politics of development and stagnation of civil society Experiences of Zambia and Botswana

Auteur : Endo, Mitsugi

Université de soutenance : University of York (United Kingdom)

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1996

Résumé
This study examines what factors affect the development of civil society, using the experiences of Zambia and Botswana. My main concern is political factors promoting and limiting activities of actors in civil society, namely, associational organisations (A0s) in this study’s terminology. After reviewing some theories and arguments concerning such issues as democratisation, state, and civil society not only in Africa but also in other parts of the world, several hypotheses will be developed and tested so as to identify reasons of the state’s responses to A0s. A kind of ft map" of AOs in Zambia and Botswana is described in accordance with the classification developed in the first chapter. Thereafter, case studies are used to test the hypotheses developed in the theoretical part of the study : rural sectors, Christian Churches, and national service development associational organisations (NSDA0s) in this order, paying attention to their interaction with the state in a comparative way. In conclusion, Botswana is a case which fits one of the hypotheses that "a regime is established in favour of the state in terms of power distribution" and that "the state dominates material and ideological bases." As a result, the development of civil society has been politically controlled. On the other hand, Zambia is a case where the state has failed to dominate both material and ideological bases, and allowed AOs to act in areas where the state failed to maintain its presence. Therefore, AOs have developed further in Zambia. These insights prompt us to reconsider the characteristics of political regimes, the prospects for democratisation, and the usefulness of applying the concept of civil society in Africa.

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