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University of York (2003)

Female Rural-Urban Migration of Azari Women In Iran : The Case Study Of Tabriz

Velayati, Masoumeh

Titre : Female Rural-Urban Migration of Azari Women In Iran : The Case Study Of Tabriz

Auteur : Velayati, Masoumeh

Université de soutenance : University of York

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2003

In this thesis, I try to bridge a gap in literature in terms of the Iranian migrant women’s invisibility. The study, which is based on fieldwork, investigates the impact of rural-urban migration on the socio-economic conditions of migrant women in Tabriz and maps them in.,.. different sectors of the formal and informal economy. Women’s responses to two main sets of questions shape the structure of this thesis. I use the empirical information to test feminist hypothesis that female migration and their contribution to household economy are key variables in liberating and empowering women’s status within the family and society. My findings reveal that for many older poor women, due to class and gender inequalities as - ; well as traditional gender ideologies, migration has not improved their economic and social situation. Most of them work in the invisible sector of the economy, and some who manage to work outside the home, do so out of necessity. Migration has mostly benefited younger generation of migrant women. Contrary to expectations, the gender policies of the Islamic state in terms of veil and segregation has created a sense of security for both parents and girls. Since contact with the outside world has been regulated by the accepted traditional gender ideologies and therefore less threatening to family honour, there has been a change in the patterns of female migration. This is particularly the case among younger women who pursue higher levels of schooling or employment in the city. It seems that socio-political transformation has brought some opportunities for younger women, who are resourceful in responding to these changes within a social and cultural context. They adjust themselves to the available opportunities and negotiate and challenge the cultural constraints to promote their interests in the family and society. However, there is a long way to go for many young migrant women.

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