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Université du Ningxia (2017)

The Effects of Different Irrigation Patterns on Maize Growth and Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture in the Arid Irrigable Area of Ningxia

焦炳忠;

Titre : The Effects of Different Irrigation Patterns on Maize Growth and Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture in the Arid Irrigable Area of Ningxia

Auteur : 焦炳忠;

Grade : Master’s Theses 2017

Université : Université du Ningxia

Résumé
Water shortage is the main restrictive factor for agriculture and economic development in the arid and semi-arid region of Ningxia.This research is aiming at the practical problems such as low utilization rate of water and fertilizer,high cost of water-saving irrigation and great labor intensity in the arid irrigable area with Yellow River water of central Ningxia,and a long term field position experiment was conducted at the National dryly agricultural water-saving science and technology demonstration park in Wangtuan town of Tongxin county to search for a high efficient water saving irrigation technology of maize.Three irrigation quotas were designed under the maize growing periods,they are as follow:irrigation quotas at high-volume(240 m3/667m2),medium-volume(200 m3/667m2),low-volume(160 m3/667m2)and three planting patterns:drip irrigation mulched film,film-side drip irrigation and non-mulched drip irrigation planting.This study comprised the effects of nine different modes of planting patterns and irrigation amounts on maize growth and development,spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture and water production efficiency.Then a function of water production efficiency was established and the optimum drip irrigation planting mode was selected to optimize the utilization of maize water resources in this region.The major findings and conclusions are as follows :(1)The effects of nine different modes of planting patterns and irrigation amounts on maize growth and development,yield and water production efficiency were studied by field comparison test combined with laboratory analysis.The results showed that maize growth duration,plant height,diameter,leaf number,leaf area index,dry matter accumulation and yield are the best under the film-side drip irrigation planting.Meanwhile,there was a significant difference about yield between the different planting patterns and irrigation amounts.By comparing with these nine planting patterns,the mulching film-side drip irrigation planting with low-volume irrigation quotas had a best water production efficiency(2.85 kg/m3),while the yield was 686.94 kg/667m2.The non-mulched drip irrigation planting with high-volume irrigation treatment had a lowest water production efficiency(1.96 kg/m3),while the yield was 657.33 kg/667m2.The mulching film-side drip irrigation planting with high-volume irrigation treatment had a best yield(728.79 kg/667m2)but the water production efficiency was only 2.31 kg/m3.It was shown that though the yield is great,the water production efficiency is not the same high.The mulching film-side drip irrigation planting was the best suitable water saving irrigation mode with a higher yield and water production efficiency.In addition,the irrigation quota at 160 m3/667m2 which had a highest water production efficiency,lower water consumption and greater yield could be chose as a more appropriate irrigation regime in central Ningxia irrigable area.(2)The effects of nine different modes of planting patterns and irrigation amounts on spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture were studied.The results showed that as the soil depth increase,the average soil water content(SWC)will be increased first and then decreased in growth period of maize.Under the same irrigation quota of seedling stage,the SWC in 0-20 cm soil layer of drip irrigation mulched film and film-side drip irrigation planting can lead to a 9.80%and 13.60%increase respectively than which in non-mulched film drip irrigation planting.In maize jointing stage,the SWC in 20-40 cm layer of drip irrigation mulched film and film-side drip irrigation planting was separately enhanced by 3.80%and 5.00%than which in non-mulched film drip irrigation planting.The SWC of 20-40 cm layer with film-side drip irrigation planting is increased by 1.58%and 4.68%respectively in tasseling stage and increased by 0.20%and 2.53%respectively during the corn filling stage in comparison with other two planting modes,with the result that the mode of mulching film-side drip irrigation planting can raise soil water content significantly under the root layer of maize.(3)This research had set up a water production function model for maize film-side drip irrigation and evaluated the ef3fect of simulation by using multivariate regression analysis.The results showed that the Jensen model was in accordance with the water demand law of maize growth,and the simulation value was in good agreement with the measured value in higher accuracy.Jensen model parameters through the significance test,the complex correlation coeficient approaches 1(r=0.90**,P<0.01,S=0.06),the standard deviation fitting effect is good,and the output predicted is more accurate.The model can be used as the model of water production function of drip irrigation maize in the arid irrigable area with Yellow River water of central Ningxia,which provides a theoretical basis for the design of optimized irrigation system for maize in arid and semi-arid region of Ningxia

Mots clés : maize; mulching film-side drip irrigation; spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture; water production function; irrigable area with Yellow River water of Ningxia;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 28 janvier 2018